Presentation on theme: "Endocrine System By Meghan Bury, Natalie Bontempo, Greg Lerner & Mike Devine."— Presentation transcript:
Endocrine System By Meghan Bury, Natalie Bontempo, Greg Lerner & Mike Devine
The Endocrine System… affects bodily activities by releasing chemical messages, called hormones, into the bloodstream from exocrine and endocrine glands.
The Function of Hormones Is To: Control the internal environment by regulating its chemical composition and volume Respond to environmental changes to help the body cope with emergencies - infection, stress etc Help regulate organic metabolism and energy balance Contribute to the management of growth and development.
Hormones Cause changes in particular parts of the body Their effects are slower and more general than nerve action Control changes, such as rate of growth, activity and sexual maturity.
Parts of Endocrine System hypothalamus pituitary thyroid Parathyroid Adrenal glands Pineal Gland Thymus Reproductive Glands
INFORMATION ON GLANDS The glands are separate but it is known that they are functionally related. Body health is dependent on a correct balance output from all the various glands that make up the endocrine system.
Hypothalamus Located in the lower central part of the brain Regulates satiety, metabolism and body temperature Secretes hormones that stimulate/suppress release of hormones in pituitary gland Also included in the nervous system.
IMPORTANT CONNECTION! Nervous & Endocrine System Hypothalamus talks to and gives orders to the Pituitary gland. Together they regulate homeostasis and have major control over bodily functions. Huge, important connection!
The Pituitary Gland Also known as the Hypophysis The leader of the endocrine system It consists of anterior and posterior lobes Located at base of brain, no larger than a pea The anterior lobe produces: 1.Growth hormone 2.Thyroid-Stimulating hormone 3.Adrenocorticotropin hormone 4.Luteinizing/follicle-stimulating 5.Prolactin hormone The posterior lobe produces: 1.Antidiuretic hormone vasopressin 2.Oxytoin
Thyroid Gland Located in the lower front part of the neck Produce thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism Plays a role in bone growth and development of brain and nervous system in children help maintain normal blood pressure, heart rate, digestion, muscle tone, and reproductive functions.
Parathyroid Glands Two pairs of small glands located on the surface of the thyroid gland One pair on each side Regulates calcium levels in the blood and bone
Adrenal Glands Located on the top of each kidney Triangular-shaped Made up of two parts : adrenal cortex (outer) and adrenal medulla (inner) outer part produces corticosteroids- regulates metabolism, balance of salt/water in body, immune system & sexual function Inner part produce catecholamines (ex: adrenaline) which help body cope with stress by increasing blood pressure and heart rate.
Pineal Gland Located in the middle of the brain Secretes melatonin Regulates wake/sleep cycle
Thymus Located in upper thorax behind the sternum, but below the thyroid gland. Each has 2 lobes (cortex and medulla) Plays a critical role in the development of a child's immune system before birth and for a time thereafter. processing and maturation of special lymphocytes called T-cells T-cells are special lymphocytes
Reproductive Glands MALE: Testes produce testosterone Scrotum holds the testes. Controls maturation (sexual development, pubic/facial hair) Sperm Production FEMALE: Ovaries (located on both sides of uterus) produce estrogen and progesterone as well as eggs. Control development (ex: breast growth) Reproductive Functions (menstruation, pregnancy)
Type 1 Diabetes The body’s immune system destroys the insulin-producing beta cells located in the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into cells. Auto-immune disease, also known as juvenile onset diabetes. 10-15% of all people with the disease. May appear at any age, but commonly under 40.
Type 1 Diabetes Triggered by environmental factors. Viruses, chemicals, diets, or that people are genetically predisposed. People with Type 1 Diabetes must carefully follow a diet plan, exercise, and inject themselves with insulin several times a day.
Causes for Type 1 Diabetes Exact cause is unknown. Most people with disease, their own immune system mistakenly destroys the insulin producing cells in the pancreas. It is caused more by genetics then environmental factors. Exposure to certain viruses may trigger it. Whatever the cause, little to no insulin is produced.
Causes of Type 1 Diabetes Insulin helps glucose (sugar) enter cells to provide energy and it comes from the pancreas. If it’s working right, once you eat, the pancreas produces insulin into the blood. When the insulin circulates, it “acts like a key, unlocking microscopic doors” that let sugar in.
Causes of Type 1 Diabetes As the blood sugar level drops, so does the insulin secreting from the pancreas. Instead of sugar being transported into your cells, it builds up in the blood stream. This is when it causes complications.
Symptoms for Type 1 Diabetes Thirst and Urine Increase- excess sugar builds in blood system, so fluid is pulled from your tissues leaving you thirsty. You may drink more, which will increase your urination. Extreme Hunger- There is not enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, causing your muscles and organs to use up energy. It will trigger hunger, that may last till after you eat. Since there is no insulin, the sugar will not reach the “energy starved” tissues.
Symptoms for Type 1 Diabetes Fatigue- Due to your cells being deprived of sugar, you can become irritable and tired. Weight Loss- Eating more to relieve hunger still can cause you to lose weight. Without energy, your muscles and tissues will shrink. Blurred Vision- If your blood sugar level is too high it will pull fluid from your tissues (lenses of eyes) and will harm your ability to focus clearly.
Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes is known as the adult-onset or non-insulin- dependent diabetes. It is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar. It is the most common form of diabetes and affects 85-90% of all people with the disease
Type 2 Diabetes Your body is resistant to the effects of insulin. Doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain normal glucose levels. Excess weight, high blood pressure, inactivity and poor diet. Twice as likely to suffer cardiovascular disease
Causes for Type 2 Diabetes The body does not respond right to insulin, called “insulin resistance.” This has more to due with environment. Obesity, age, lack of physical activity.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes Thirst and Urine Increase- excess sugar builds in blood system, so fluid is pulled from your tissues leaving you thirsty. You may drink more, which will increase your urination. Increased Hunger- There is not enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, causing your muscles and organs to use up energy. It will trigger hunger, that may last till after you eat. Since there is no insulin, the sugar will not reach the “energy starved” tissues.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes Fatigue- Due to your cells being deprived of sugar, you can become irritable and tired. Weight Loss- Eating more to relieve hunger still can cause you to lose weight. Without energy, your muscles and tissues will shrink. Blurred Vision- If your blood sugar level is too high it will pull fluid from your tissues (lenses of eyes) and will harm your ability to focus clearly.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes Frequent Infections of Slow Healing Sores- This type of diabetes affects your ability to defend yourself against and heal infections. Darkened Skin- A sign of insulin resistance is called acanthosis nigricans. It causes areas of dark, velvety skin in the creases and folds of the body. Armpits and neck.
Gestational Diabetes Occurs only during pregnancy. Affects the way your body uses sugar- main source of fuel. Can cause high blood sugar Will not cause a problem for you Can cause health problems for unborn baby. You can maintain it by eating healthy food, medication and exercising regularly.
What happens to the baby After birth, baby will have blood sugar tested. If the sugar is low, the baby will be given sugar water to drink. Baby may develop jaundice. Yellow discoloration of the skin that occurs when bilirubin is in the baby’s blood. Bilirubin is a pigment that causes jaundice. It’s released when extra red blood cells build up in the blood and cannot be processed fast enough.
Cont. Jaundice can go away with treatment which involves exposing the baby to special lights to rid the pigment. Gestational Diabetes increases the chance for your baby to have diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes Principal treatment is delivery of artificial insulin through injection or pump. Almost all people who have Type 1 diabetes must take insulin injections
Insulin, Taking Injections Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use glucose for energy You’ll give yourself shots using a needle and syringe. The syringe is a hollow tube with a plunger. You will put your dose of insulin into the tube. Some people use an insulin pen.
Using an Insulin Pump A small machine about the size of a cell phone, worn outside of your body on a belt or in a pocket or pouch. The pump connects to a small plastic tube and a very small needle. The needle is inserted under the skin and stays in for several days. Insulin is pumped from the machine through the tube into your body.
Insulin Jet Injector Looks like a large pen Sends a fine spray of insulin through the skin Using high-pressure air instead of a needle.
Self Management of Diabetes Eating healthy to maintain blood sugar levels Exercise Weight loss (type 2) Check blood glucose level multiple times a day Various oral diabetic drugs example : metformin (type 2)
Osteoporosis a condition in which bones become fragile and more likely to break.
How you get it For Women: a decrease in the hormone estrogen occurring during menopause in women For Men: decrease in testosterone occurring in men as they age.
Symptoms Osteoporosis often has no obvious symptoms, it is often left undiagnosed until the person affected suffers a broken or fractured bone during a minor fall.
Symptoms - Cramps in the legs at night - Bone pain and tenderness - Neck pain, discomfort in the neck other than from injury or traumainjury - Persistent pain in the spine or muscles of the lower back - Abdominal pain - Tooth loss - Rib pain - Broken bones - Spinal deformities become evident like stooped posture, an outward curve at the top of the spine as a result of developing a vertebral collapse on the back. - Fatigue - Periodontal disease - Brittle fingernails These symptoms also may indicate other health problems like arthritis or tendonitis.
Osteopenia Osteopenia is generally considered the first step along the road to osteoporosis Diminished bone calcification, as seen on plain X-ray film, is referred to as osteopenia
Treatment Treatment for osteoporosis typically includes education on diet/nutrition, exercise (if no fractures) and medications. The goal of osteoporosis treatment is to prevent fractures.
Treatments Osteoporosis medications that slow or stop bone resorption -Bisphosphonates -Calcitonin -Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators -Hormone Therapy
Bisphosphonates Bisphosphonates work by slowing the rate of bone thinning, which can prevent the development of osteoporosis and reduce the risk of fracture in people who already have osteoporosis. They are taken orally.
Calcitonin Calcitonin (e.g. Miacalcin, Calcimar, Fortical) is a hormone that is produced naturally in the body, and it is now available as a prescription medication. It can be taken in injection form or intranasal (through a nose spray). This has been found to increase bone density mainly in the spine.
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) class of drugs developed to provide the benefits of estrogens without their disadvantages. They are taken orally once a day and is shown to increase bone mass and reduce the risk of spine fractures.
Hormone Therapy hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can lower the risk of osteoporosis-related hip fractures and other fractures in postmenopausal women. But taking HRT led to small increases in the number of women who developed breast cancer, ovarian cancer, heart attack, stroke, blood clots, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Also referred to as PCOS, it is an endocrine disorder that affects approximately 5% of all women It occurs amongst all races and nationalities It is the most common hormonal disorder among women of reproductive age, and is a leading cause of infertility
Symptoms Oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea — irregular, few, or absent menstrual periods. Infertility, generally resulting from chronic anovulation (lack of ovulation). Hirsutism — excessive and increased body hair, typically in a male pattern affecting face, chest and legs. Hair loss appearing as thinning hair on the top of the head Acne, oily skin, seborrhea. Obesity or weight gain: one in two women with PCOS are obese Depression Deepening of voice
Treatment Medical treatment of PCOS is tailored to the patient's goals. Broadly, these may be considered under four categories: Lowering of insulin levels Restoration of fertility Treatment of hirsutism or acne Restoration of regular menstruation, and prevention of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer