Presentation on theme: "“To take up the Cross”. The reasons and causes for the Crusades as a whole The reasons and causes for each individual Crusade The results and effects."— Presentation transcript:
Feudal System Bellicose Society and Culture Impending threat of Muslims/ Muslim occupation of the Holy Land. Immensely strong religious duties and bond to Christendom Great Schism just happened in 1054
Read Pope Urban II’s address at Clermont. 1. Why is he calling for a Crusade? 2. Who is his audience ;who is this call to? 3. What is happening to Christians in the east?
Protect the Eastern Rite Catholic churches Regain the Holy Land Shrines, Relics, Holy Places, etc. Counter Muslim threat
Service to country and Religion Adventure Looking to increase wealth and/or status Plenary Indulgence (removal of effects of sin) Chance for martyrdom (straight to heaven if you die) Pilgrimage to the Holy Land Duty (Feudal System)
Byzantine Emperor asked Pope Urban II for help against Seljuk (Turkish) Muslims Pope Urban II called the Council of Clermont in 1095 Crusade called to reclaim Byzantine territory and “free Jerusalem” Seen as an act of faith in Jesus, a way to promote Christian unity and protect pilgrims Battle cry: “Deus vult” (God wills it) Battle dress: a cross of red fabric
SUCCESS!!! Jerusalem is captured, Christians now have control of the Holy Land! Divided into 4 new fiefs: Kingdom of Jerusalem County of Tripoli County of Edessa, Principality of Antioch Access to Holy Land!
Difficult to control Many Christians went back to Europe Military Orders created to help. Mixing of Muslim and Christian culture.
City of Edessa is attacked by Muslims – Christians respond. King Louis VII (France) & Emperor Conrad II (Holy Roman Empire/Germany) lead the 2 nd Crusade. Set out to capture Damascus in order to defend Jerusalem. FAILURE – Thought to be due to the sins and moral laxity of Christendom
Saladin- Great Muslim leader who has united his people and preaches jihad against the Christians. Takes Jerusalem in 1187 Christians respond with the 3 rd Crusade! Richard the Lionhearted (England), Emperor Frederick Barbarossa (Germany), King Philip (France). SUCCESS?!... Sort of: Richard the Lionhearted and Saladin make a Truce. Christians are granted safe and tax free passage to the Holy Land.
Unofficial Crusades People’s Crusade – Peter the Hermit encouraged the regular people of Europe to go on Crusade and free the Holy Land most were killed Children’s Crusade – 1000s of children were encouraged by their parents to walk to Jerusalem and free it most starved to death as they walked towards the ocean, others were sold into slavery
Knights Templar Protected pilgrims as the traveled. Knights Hospitaller Took care of pilgrims and Crusaders.
Positive 1. Renewed Christian faith, 2. Strengthened the influence of the Papacy and the Church 3. Promoted knighthood and chivalry 4. United Christians 5. Eastern products: paper, silk, spices; Developed international trade and travel 6. Recovery of relics, land and Churches 7. Arabic numerals 8. Warded off Muslim Invasion 1. The abuses of some of the Crusaders gave the Church a bad name 2. The attack upon fellow Christians in Constantinople made bad feelings between East and West worse (4 th Crusade) 3. The unsuccessful Crusades made some Christians bitter 4. The Crusades were not permanently successful Negative