Cardiovascular diseases: Claimed 959,227 lives in 1996. Other 1996 mortality: total cancer 544,728; accidents 93,874; HIV (AIDS) 32,655. One sixth of all people killed by CVD are under age 65. From 1985 to 1995 death rates from CVD declined 22%. In the same 10-year period the actual number of deaths declined only 2.0 percent.
Coronary Heart Disease Caused 476,124 deaths in ‘96 - the single leading cause of death in America today. This year an estimated 1,100,000 Americans will have a new or recurrent coronary attack, and about 1/3 will die. At least 250,000 people a year die of coronary attack within 1 hr. of the onset of symptoms.
Cardiovascular Disease Cost The cost of cardiovascular diseases and stroke in 1999 is estimated by the AHA at $286.5 billion. This includes direct costs, which include cost of physicians and other professions, hospital and nursing home services, the cost of medications, and home health. It is impossible to assess the cost in terms of suffering and human life.
What is Heart Disease? What are some types of heart and blood vessel diseases? HARDENING OF THE ARTERIES HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE HEART ATTACKS HEART FAILURE STROKE and TIA
What is a Heart Attack? What causes a heart attack? Myocardial Infarction: Blood flow is blocked (by a blood clot or buildup of plaque). Warning signs: Uncomfortable heavy feeling, pressure, pain or squeezing in the center of your chest that lasts more than a few minutes. Pain that goes to your shoulders, neck or arms. Discomfort in your chest along with a light head, fainting, sweating, nausea or shortness of breath.
Risk Factors Family history Smoking Hyperlipidemia Hypertension Obesity Inactive Lifestyle Diabetes
Your FAMILY HISTORY may increase your risk if... Your father or brother had a heart attack before age 55 OR your mother or sister had one before age 65. You have a close blood relative who had a stroke.
CIGARETTE SMOKING... it’ll make you choke! Cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Current estimates for the United States are that 25.2 million men (26.7%) & 23.2 million women (22.8%) are smokers, putting them at increased risk of heart attack. In addition, an estimated 4.1 million teenagers aged 12 thru 17 years are smokers. Women who smoke and use oral contraceptives greatly increase their risk of coronary heart disease compared with women who neither smoke nor use oral contraceptives. People who smoke cigars or pipes seem to have a higher risk of death from coronary heart disease (possibly stroke), but their risk is not as great as cigarette smokers.
SMOKING CESSATION Approximately 48 million Americans currently smoke cigarettes, but most smokers are either actively trying to quit or want to quit. Since 1965, more than 40% of all adults who have ever smoked have quit. After 1 year off cigarettes, the excess risk of heart disease caused by smoking is reduced by half. After 15 years of abstinence, the risk is similar to that of persons who have never smokes. In 5 to 15 years, the risk of stroke for ex-smokers returns to the level of those who have never smokes. Male smokers who quit between 35 to 39 add an average of 5 years to their lives. Female quitters in this age group add 3 years. Men and women who quit at ages 65 to 69 increase their life expectancy by 1 year.
High Blood Cholesterol... is your number up? Estimates are that 98.1 million American adults (51.9%) have total blood cholesterol values of 200 mg/dL and higher, and about 39.4 million American adults (about 20%) have levels of 240 or above.
CHOLESTEROL, Lowering the Levels The American Heart Association dietary guidelines for healthy Americans recommend that no more than 30 percent of your total calories should come from fat. The AHA also recommends that your daily intake of dietary cholesterol be less than 300 milligrams (mg) and no more than 200 mg is you have coronary heart disease.
How Can I Lower High Cholesterol Low fat, low cholesterol diet Weight control Exercise program Medication
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE... The Silent Killer High blood pressure (hypertension) killed 41,634 Americans in 1996 and contributed to the deaths of about 202,000. One in five Americans (and one in four adults) has high blood pressure. Of those people with high blood pressure, 31.6% don’t know they have it.
What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the result of two forces. One is created by the heart as it pushes blood into the arteries and through the circulatory system. The other is the force of the arteries as they resist the blood flow. What do blood pressure numbers indicate? The higher (systolic) number represents the pressure while the heart is beating. The lower (diastolic) number represents the pressure when the heart is resting between beats. Blood pressure of less than 140 over 90 is considered a normal blood pressure reading for adults.
Blood Pressure cont. High blood pressure usually has no symptoms. In fact, many people have high blood pressure for years without knowing it. That’s why it’s so dangerous. The only way to find out if you have high blood pressure is to have your blood pressure checked. Your doctor or other qualified health professional should check your blood pressure at least once every two years.
OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT... It’s a Real Drag! About 61 million American adults are now 20% or more over their ideal weight. People who are more than 20% over their ideal body weight (obese) are more likely to develop heart disease and stroke, even if they have no other risks factors. Obesity is defined simply as an excess of body fat. Obesity is now recognized as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, which can lead to heart attack.
OBESITY: raises blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels. lowers HDL (the “good” cholesterol linked with lower risk). raises blood pressure. can induce diabetes. In some people, diabetes has a strongly adverse effect on these risk factors. In them, the resulting danger of heart attack is especially high.
Physical Inactivity... Just move! Physical inactivity has been established as a major risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. It also contributes to other risk factors including obesity, high blood pressure and a low level of HDL cholesterol. Even moderate intensity physical activity such as brisk walking is beneficial when done regularly for a total of 30 minutes or longer on most days.
What are other benefits of exercise? Physical activity builds healthy bones, muscles, and joints, and reduces the risk of colon cancer. In fact, millions of Americans suffer from illnesses that can be prevented or improved through regular physical activity. Physical activity also brings psychological benefits. For example, it reduces feelings of depression and anxiety, improves mood and promotes a feeling of well-being.
DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes mellitus killed 61,559 Americans in 1996. 10,060,000 Americans have diabetes (about 4.6 million males and 5.5 million females). 625,000 new cases of diabetes are diagnosed every year.
What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is the inability of the body to produce or respond to insulin properly. Insulin allows the body to use glucose (sugar). Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke and is now recognized as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, which leads to heart attack.
How Can I Avoid a Heart Attack? Don’t smoke. Treat high blood pressure if you have it. Eat a diet that’s low in fat, cholesterol, and salt. Exercise. Keep your weight in the normal range. Follow your doctor’s orders for taking medicine. See your doctor for regular checkups. Control your blood sugar if you have diabetes.