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Mobile Computing The iphone Projection keyboard Andriod MyVu

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1 Mobile Computing The iphone Projection keyboard Andriod MyVu
Portable projectors The iPad

2 Chapter Outline Definition Trends of computing Mobile devices
Mobile computing issues & Challenges Mobile computing applications & platforms Mobile OS

3 The activity of performing computations.
What is computing? The activity of performing computations. OR Computing can also be defined as the activity of using computer hardware and software for some purpose .

4 Computing Trend Size Number 1960’s 1980’s 2000’s
One Computer for One Person (PC Computing) One Computer for Many People (Mainframe Computing) Many Computer for One Person (Pervasive Computing) 1960’s 1980’s 2000’s

5 Existing computing paradigms
Personal Computing Parallel Computing Super Computing Distributed Computing Cloud Computing Mobile Computing Autonomic Computing Pervasive Computing

6 Computing Paradigms… Personal computing system Characterized by
refers to the use of personal computers for Computation. Characterized by Local software installation, Local system maintenance Customizable to user needs Very low utilization (1980’s)

7 Computing Paradigms… Distributed computing : Distributed system
refers to the use of distributed systems to solve computational problems. Distributed system  consists of multiple autonomous computers that communicate through a computer network. it appears to its users as a single coherent system. Eg. GOOGLE , bank data base ,each keeping local copy ,

8 Distributed computing example: surfing the web from different terminals on university . Each web page consists of hypertext, pictures, movies and elements anywhere on the internet

9 Distributed computing…

10 Distributed computing…
Distributed systems are characterized by: remote information access (Message passing ) High availability (replication , mirrored execution, ...) fault tolerance (atomic transactions, consistency …) Security

11 Computing Paradigms… Parallel Computing Characterized by
Calculations of large problems are divided into smaller parts and carried out simultaneously /concurrently on different processors. Characterized by Shared memory (to exchange information between processors)

12 Parallel Computing

13 Computing Paradigms… What is Mobile Computing? Mobile Computing
Able to move freely. usually Wireless is need to move freely . Computing The activity of performing computations. A simple answer => Performing computation in mobile units

14 Mobile Computing Using:
small size portable computers, hand-helds and other small wearable devices, To run stand-alone applications (or access remote applications) via: wireless networks: IR, BlueTooth, W-LANs, Cellular, W-Packet Data networks, SAT. etc. By: nomadic or mobile users (animals, agents, trains, cars, cell phones, ….)

15 Mobile Computing Three basic components Networks: communication
Devices and computing units :mobile Applications : Computation Networks: mobile/wireless networks + wired networks (how to maintain the network quality and guaranteed services, …) Devices and computing units (normally limited resources, i.e., processing power, memory, energy, devices) Applications (distributed applications with mobile users and mobile data, …)

16 Computing Paradigms… Pervasive/ Ubiquitous computing
is about the invisible and everywhere (every time) computing Ubiquitous= “seeming to be in all places” Pervasive= “present or noticeable in every part of a thing or place”

17 Pervasive computing … Characteristics
Invisible: tiny, embedded, attachable… Everywhere: wireless, dynamically configurable, remote access, adapting, … “It is about making computers so embedded, so fitting, so natural that we use them without even thinking about them.”

18 Pervasive computing Example
A simple example is the automatic adjustment of heating, cooling and lighting levels in a room based on an occupant’s profile. refrigerators "aware" of their suitably tagged contents, able to both plan a variety of menus from the food actually on hand, and warn users of stale or spoiled food.

19 Pervasive computing Characterized by :
Context Awareness (physical location, physiological state, emotional state,….. distraction-free) Ad-hoc Networks Smart Spaces,(equipped with visual and audio sensing systems ) Smart Sensors, Wearables… "Smart spaces" are ordinary environments equipped with visual and audio sensing systems that can perceive and react to people without requiring them to wear any special equipment

20 Cloud Computing “Cloud computing provides computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services.” Cloud computing characteristics: Agility, Reduced Cost, Device And Location Independence, On-demand Scalability And Performance

21 Cloud computing

22 Mobile Devices

23 Mobile devices A mobile device (a.k.a. handheld device, handheld computer) is a pocket-sized computing device, typically having a display screen with touch input or a miniature keyboard. Due to the rapid advancement of the technology its hard to make a specific classifications of mobile devices. In this section I will try to give some overview of the current major handheld devices.

24 Different types of mobile devices
Laptop Notebook Netbook Ultra-Mobile PC Communication devices pager Smartphone PDA &Pocket PC cell phone Cordless phone Tablet PC E-book readers

25 Laptops, Notebook, & Netbooks
Notebooks: 1996 Netbooks: 2006

26 Mobile devices… Laptop in general
is a small personal computer designed for portability. Usually all of the interface hardware(ports, graphics card, sound channel, etc.,) are built in to a single unit. Contain  batteries that can power the device for some periods of time. upgrade is usually difficult/impossible. ( Keyboard / display) One main drawback of the laptop is sometimes, due to the size and configuration of components, relatively little can be done to upgrade the overall computer from its original design. Internal upgrades are either not manufacturer recommended, can damage the laptop if done with poor care or knowledge, or in some cases impossible, making the desktop PC more modular. Some internal upgrades, such as memory and hard disks upgrades are often easy, a display or keyboard upgrade is usually impossible

27 Laptop… Notebook Screen -(10” and above) Purpose- (multi- purpose)
Weight – (light) Computing power (high ) heavy multi-tasking loads e.g creating and editing HD video or computer aided engineering SWs. contain high capacity batteries.  interface hardware( graphics card, sound channel, etc., are built in to a single unit) display or keyboard upgrade

28 Laptop… Netbook Screen -(7”-10”) Purpose Weight – (very light)
(limited,.. internet, basic applications) Weight – (very light) Computing power (low ) Used for basic applications. E.g. Office applications Longer battery life. 

29 Laptop… Ultra mobile-pcs(UMPCs) Screen -(4”-7”) Purpose
(very limited,…, Internet, veiw info) Weight –(very very light) Computing power (very low ) Used for basic applications. E.g. Office applications Longer battery life.  UMPCs are pocketable! reduced specification (lack CD-drive, LAN )

30 Communication devices…
Pager Beeper because of the sound it made Voice Tone Pagers Recorded Voice message. Numeric Pagers can display up to twenty digits at a time. Alphanumeric Pagers modified versions of numeric pagers with sophisticated display to accommodate text

31 Communication devices…
Two-way Alphanumeric pagers  are alphanumeric pagers capable of both sending & receiving text messages. Still used in emergency services .fire & police stations. large hospital complex, where cellular coverage is often weak or nonexistent Fancy Restaurant( waiting staff )

32 Communication devices…
Mobile phone/cellphone Provides voice communications, Short Message Service (SMS), Multimedia Message Service (MMS), newer phones also provide Internet services Web browsing, instant messaging capabilities & .

33 Communication devices…
PDA: Personal Digital Assistant designed primarily to provide the functionality of maintaining appointments, tasks, contacts, etc. usually pen-based,(use a stylus rather than a keyboard for input) Today PDAs function as a cellular phone, fax sender, Web browser and personal organizer. Traditional PDAs have not had phone or fax services Pocket PC: A type of PDA/smartphone which runs WindowsMobile as its operating system.

34 Smart Phones

35 Communication devices…
Smart phone traditional PDA + cellular phone combines standard phone features, such as making and receiving phone calls, with computer functionality. Incorporates Wi-Fi access, , calendars and GPS let you store information & install programs allow the user to download additional applications and personalize the device, similar to a computer

36 Smart phone Functionality
Voice calls (of course), Video calls Local File Storage Internet/Cloud Services Office Computing eBook Reader Multimedia Player Digital Audio/Video Recorder Location Based Services Context awareness

37 Communication devices…
Cordless telephone is a telephone with a wireless handset that communicates via radio wave with base station connected to a fixed telephone line

38 Mobile devices… Tablet PC portable personal computer equipped with a touch screen as a primary input device and designed to be operated and owned by an individual. use virtual keyboards and handwriting recognition for text input through the touchscreen. Tablet PCs also can be connected to a full-size keyboard and monitor

39 Two main types of tablet PCs:
Convertible -look a lot like normal laptops except the screen can be rotated all the way around and laid down flat across the Keyboard. Slate- looks like a flat screen without a keyboard

40 Tablet PC… advantage Great mobility Save money digital ink
stationer costs stays in your pocket digital ink  record your handwriting and drawings pens, pencils, highlighters, notepads, papers, binders, folders, staples, and paperclips

41 Mobile devices… E-book reader Support - Text to Speech
portable electronic device that is designed primarily for the purpose of reading digital books and publication. Support - Text to Speech - Internet Capabilities( Wi-Fi ,3G) Pocket PC: A type of PDA which runs WindowsMobile as its operating system

42 Application

43 Mobile computing application
Transport position and tracking via GPS prevent accidents, navigation system. Tourist navigation Emergencies/ Disaster relief early transmission of patient data to the hospital, current status, first diagnosis. earthquakes, hurricanes, fire etc. Emergencies

44 Mobile computing application…
Business M-Commerce: mobile E-commerce /shopping … M-Banking: offer mobile access to financial and account information. Advertising: using SMS is becoming very popular in our country. Traveling salesperson Entertainment, education outdoor Internet access multi user games M-learning : E-learning direct access to customer files stored in a central location Dashen Bank in Ethiopia has launched its mobile banking service ‘Modbirr’. The service will entitle customers to conduct banking transactions using their mobile phone anytime, anywhere.

45 Dashen bank The first mobile Banking service in Ethiopia

46 Mobile computing application…
Location aware find services in the local environment, e.g. printer nearest cash ATM/ shop / restaurant/hotel Web access & Communication outdoor Internet access Electronic Mail Chatting Application Services in general push: e.g., breaking news info pull: e.g., nearest cash ATM a mobile agent is a composition of computer software and data which is able to migrate (move) from one computer to another autonomously and continue its execution on the destination computer

47 NextBus: Customer Service
The Problem Buses in San Francisco have difficulty keeping to 20 minute schedule during rush hours Posted schedule becomes meaningless The Solution Bus riders carrying Internet-enabled cell phone or PDA helps: Find estimated arrival time at each stop, digitally in real time Soon location-based advertisements will pop up—you have time to get a cup of coffee before the bus arrives—Starbuck’s is 200 feet to the right

48 NextBus (cont.) The Results
Passengers in San Francisco are happy with the system Worries about missing the bus are diminished May discover they have time for a cup of coffee before the bus arrives Bus company can: Schedule better Arrange for extra buses when needed Improve operations

49 NextBus Operational Model

50 Beneficiaries of Ubiquitous Computing
Commuters Travelers Stock traders Medical Law enforcement Package delivery Education Insurance Emergency Trucking Intelligence Military Clients Adhoc network Servers Intranet Internet

51 Activity State one mobile application idea that you will develop as your course project . Start thinking about What you will do ?

52 Comparison to Wired Net.
Wired Networks high bandwidth low bandwidth variability can listen on wire high power machines high resource machines need physical access(security) low delay connected operation Mobile Networks low bandwidth high bandwidth variability hidden terminal problem low power machines low resource machines need proximity higher delay disconnected operation

53 Home work Read about Microsoft Surface The sixth Sense by MIT

54 Today Mobile OS Mobile computing issues & Challenges
Mobile applications development

55 Mobile OS is the operating system that controls a mobile device similar in principle to an operating system such as Windows, Mac OS, or Linux that controls a desktop computer or laptop.

56 Types of Mobile OS

57 Types of Mobile OS Symbian Market share(2010): 37.6%( #1 )
License : open source Company: Nokia. CPU Architecture: ARM Programmed in: C++ Application store: Symbian Horizon,Ovistore(10000+) Package manager: Nokia Ovi Suite Other: multi-touch, easily affordable cost

58 Symbian (Nokia) Pros Issues Massive global reach
Leads WW market with 62% of smartphone traffic being open source could help accelerate pace of innovation Issues Limited reach in the US Application distribution more difficult today vs. iPhone’s app store Manufacturer dependent

59 Types of Mobile OS Android Market share(2010): 22.7%
License : open source Company: Open Handset Alliance(Google). CPU Architecture: ARM, x86 Programmed in: C, C++, Java Application store: Android market(100,000+) Package manager: APK Other: multi-touch, Linux

60 Android (Google) Pros: Issues:
Open source => accelerate pace of innovation Manufacturer-independent => could help accelerate consumer adoption Technology support (e.g., touchscreen, GPS, accelerometer, video and still cameras) Issues: Late to market relative to iPhone

61 Accelerometer “An accelerometer is a device that measures the proper acceleration of the device. This is not necessarily the same as the coordinate acceleration (change of velocity of the device in space), but is rather the type of acceleration associated with the phenomenon of weight experienced by a test mass that resides in the frame of reference of the accelerometer device. For an example of where these types of acceleration differ, an accelerometer will measure a value when sitting on the ground, because masses there have weights, even though they do not change velocity. However, an accelerometer in gravitational free fall toward the center of the Earth will measure a value of zero because, even though its speed is increasing, it is in an inertial frame of reference, in which it is weightless.”

62 Gyroscope A gyroscope is a device for measuring orientation, based on conservation of angular momentum. 2010: $5, based on MEMS technology a single part with gyroscopic sensors and an accelerometer output up to six full degrees of freedom.

63 Proximity sensor A proximity sensor detects the presence of nearby objects without physical contact

64 Sensors Ambient Light Sensor 3D Accelerometer Proximity Sensor
Temperature and Pressure Sensor

65 Types of Mobile OS BlackBerry RIM OS Market share(2010): 16.0%
License : Proprietary Company: Research in motion (RIM). CPU Architecture: ARM Programmed in: Java Application store: Blackberry App World(30000+) Package manager: Blackberry Desktop Manager Other: not multi-touch, push service Push  is used to describe   systems that provide an always-on capability, in which new is actively transferred (pushed) as it arrives

66 BlackBerry OS (RIM) Pros: Large reach and data-hungry user base
Leads US market with 31% of smartphone traffic #3in WW market with 11% of smartphone traffic Developers not limited to single distribution channel Issues: Less Developer momentum Application distribution more difficult today vs. iPhone’s app store Users more focused vs. web consuming iPhone users RIM / hardware dependent

67 Types of Mobile OS Apple iOS Market share(2010): 15.7%
License : Proprietary Company: Apple. CPU Architecture: ARM Programmed in: C, C++, Objective-C Application store: Apple App Store(300,000+) Package manager: iTunes Other: Mac OS X, multi-touch, for iphone ,ipod touch ipad, Apple Tv only

68 iPhone OS (Apple) Strong user growth and data-hungry user base
Pros: Strong user growth and data-hungry user base More than 10 million iPhones sold Application store creating a vibrant app ecosystem with great momentum More than 3K applications (~20% free) More than 1 million downloads Powerful technology (e.g., multi-touch, GPS, accelerometer) Issues: App approval process is largely a black-box to developers Apps viewed as competitive to Apple are often shut down App store is the only authorized distribution channel Apple / hardware dependent

69 Types of Mobile OS Windows Mobile Market share(2010): 4.2%
License : Proprietary Company: Microsoft. CPU Architecture: ARM Programmed in: C++ Application store: Windows Marketplace for Mobile Package manager: Windows Mobile Device Center/ ActiveSync Other: multi-touch, Windows CE

70 Windows Mobile Pros Strong user reach
#2 in US market with 30% of smartphone traffic Manufacturer independent >18K apps Windows Mobile 7 support refurbish UI and multi- touch Issues Less developer enthusiasm vs. that for iPhone and Android Application distribution more difficult today vs. iPhone’s app store

71 Types of Mobile OS Others
Palm OS- mobile operating system initially developed by Palm webOS – Mobile operating system from HP/Palm Bada - Mobile operating system developed by Samsung Electronics MeeGo OS – from Nokia and Intel (open source, GPL)

72 Developer Resources

73 More on Mobile OS Metrics Mobile OS introductions / summaries
AdMob metrics ( Opera State of the Mobile Web Report ( Mobile OS introductions / summaries Comparison / analysis

74 Mobile Computing Issues:
Mobile device issues Short battery lifetime (Lithium ion battery: 5 hrs max) Limited hardware (display, memory, disk space, etc). Prone to theft and destruction Unavailable (frequently powered-off) Few standards (hardware, architecture, etc) Networking issues Mobile connectivity is highly variable in performance and reliability.(unpredictable variation in network quality) Routing data and messages(variable location) Some buildings may offer reliable, high-bandwidth wireless connectivity while others may only offer low-bandwidth connectivity. Outdoors, a mobile client may have to rely on a low-bandwidth wireless systems

75 Applications issues Transcoding, adaptive resource management
File compression

76 Limitations of the Mobile Environment
Limitations of the Wireless Network heterogeneity of fragmented networks frequent disconnections limited communication bandwidth Limitations Imposed by Mobility Limitations of the Mobile Computer

77 Challenges Disconnection Low bandwidth High bandwidth variability
Low power and resources Security risks Wide variety terminals and devices with different capabilities Device attributes Fit more functionality into single, smaller device

78 Mobile computing issues & Challenges
Location issues Connection Quality Device limitations Active transaction Security risks Wide variety terminals and devices with different capabilities

79 Challenges Location Device location is always changing
Mobility: challenges and opportunities Localization & Location sensitivity

80 Location… Localization is the ability of the architecture of the mobile application to accommodate logic that allows the selection of different business logic, level of work flow, and interfaces based on a given set of location information commonly referred to as locales. E.g Location in Ethiopia currency ETB , TAX… e-commerce Web sites are able to take into account the different taxation rules depending on the locale of the sale and the location of the purchase

81 Location… Location sensitivity is the ability of the device and the software application to first obtain location information while being used and then to take advantage of this location information in offering features and functionality.

82 Colleting location methods for collecting location Techniques
Prompt the user to select the location Using the device( GPS, signal strength and triangulation can be used to come up with some approximate location information, depending on the cellular network) Techniques Triangulation Proximity scene analysis Triangulation (Figure 1.4) relies on age-old geometric methods that allow calculation of the location of a point that lies in the middle of three other points whose exact locations are known. If the distance to each one of the three points is known, we can use geometric techniques to calculate the exact location of the unknown point. Proximity-based methods measure the relative position of the unknown point to some known point. Scene analysis relies on image processing and topographical techniques to calculate the location of the unknown point based on a view of the unknown point from a known point.

83 • Location Dependent Services – Discovery: What services exist in my local environment? e.g., printers, file and compute services, special local applications, etc. – Follow me services: “Route calls to my current location,” “Migrate my workstation desktop to the nearest workstation screen” – Information services: » Broadcast/“push” information (e.g., “Flight 59 will depart from Gate 23”) » “Pull” information (e.g., “What gate will Flight 59 depart from?”) – Service migration: computations, caches, state, etc. follow mobile device as it moves through the network – Privacy: what applications can track user locations?

84 Location-Based Applications (LBAs)
Examples: Location-based recommendations, geo-tagging GeoLife: shopping list when near a grocery store TrafficSense: real-time traffic conditions Fieldworker assistant Location expresses context of user Facilitates content delivery


86 Connection …. Quality of Service Wireless connection is used usually
mobility means loss of network connectivity reliability. Frequent Disconnection Variable Bandwidth( indoor , outdoor) Heterogeneous Networks (2G,3G, Satellite, wifi..

87 Frequent Disconnections
Handoff blank out (>1ms for most cellulars) Drained battery disconnection Voluntary disconnection (turned off to preserve battery power, also off overnight) Theft and damage (hostile environment) Roam-off disconnections

88 Connection…. Address Migration Mobile IP
Existing applications send packets to a fixed network address Need to support dynamically changing “local” addresses as mobile device moves through network Mobile IP Apps should stop & resume must know how to deal with lack of reliable connectivity. E.g user traveling in a train and downloading report using his PDA while passing through a tunnel .

89 Solution variable Bandwidth
» Caching is a good idea, e.g., web cache Asynchronous/spool-oriented applications, like mail or printing » Trickle back data when bandwidth is available Disconnected file systems: Applications adaptation to changing quality of connectivity » High bandwidth, low latency: business as usual » High bandwidth, high latency: aggressive pre fetching » Low bandwidth, high latency: asynchronous Vertical handoff in case of heterogeneous network.

90 Device limitation Device limitation Power Storage CPU user interface

91 Device limitation … Mobile device are small!
Physical limitation => Display , Memory, Cpu, Power… limitations The heaviest part of mobile devices are batteries

92 Mobile Computers CPUs RAM Persistent Storage Multiple cores
Mega Hertz. 1 Giga Hertz new RAM 512 MB, common in 2011 in Giga Bytes new Persistent Storage 32 GB MicroSD common in 2011

93 Limitations of the Mobile Computer
Short battery lifetime (max ~ 5 hours) Subject to theft and destruction => unreliable Highly unavailable (normally powered-off to conserve battery) Limited capability (display, memory, input devices, and disk space) Lack of de-facto general architecture: hand-helds, communicators, laptops, and other devices

94 Support for multiple platforms

95 Device limitation … Varying user interface
some alternative interfaces are voice user interfaces, smaller displays, stylus and other pointing devices, touch-screen displays, and miniature keyboards For example, drivers who want to get some directions to their destination may use a data-enabled cellular phone. Most apps must be multichannel /multimodal

96 Active transaction Active transaction
most stationary applications, passive systems because they are in a passive state, waiting for some external signal from the user to tell them to start doing some particular thing.. then comes message based system any one participant in the system could send a message to another participant in the system. and, if desired, in an asynchronous manner.

97 Active transaction.. Later came the idea of push. In the push model of communication, an information producer announces the availability of certain types of information, an interested consumer subscribes to this information, and the producer periodically publishes the information (pushes it to the consumer). There is much in common between the concepts of messaging systems and push systems. The principle difference is that messaging systems are asynchronous by definition. This requirement does not exist for push based systems. Push systems, by definition, are active systems.

98 Active transaction… we will define active transactions as those transactions initiated by the system. Active transactions may be synchronous or asynchronous. Synchronous transactions are time dependent transactions.

99 Mobile software development(WHY?)
Motivation In Africa: + 1 billion people + 30 million computers + 264 million mobiles Largest growth rate of mobile subscribers For most Africans/Ethiopians , our mobile is our only computing device!

100 Mobile Application Marketplaces
•  Google, Apple, Nokia, Palm, etc. have mobile marketplaces where one can sell applications. –  Application delivery over the Network! •  Apple iPhone App store: –  350,000 applications –  1 Billion downloads ! –  $1 Million USD a day in sales!

101 Mobile Software Development
Challenges Different Operating Systems. Different Screen Size. are a challenge even on the same OS Different Input methods. Keyboard (Keypad – Keyboard – Soft Keyboard), TrackBall/Joystick, Pen (Handwriting), Touch, Microphone (Voice Command), Camera (Image Recognition), GPS some with both touch and keyboard

102 Different Hardware Architectures.
most dominant architectures in the market of CPUs is the ARM architecture Limited computing capabilities. Lack of good language support Security Always shared medium

103 Mobile Software Development
Solutions to Challenges Multi Modal Interface. E.g Combining the face and speech recognition together helps to increase speech recognition accuracy and lower word error rate Simplified Algorithms (Speed ). Data Compression (Size & Speed). Programming Language Selection. Screen independent graphical coordinates or layout managers. Unicode Support Encryption and authentication

104 Mobile Software Development
Programming Languages C/C++, .NET, Java ME, FlashLite, SilverLight Mobile JavaFX, HTML/WML/JAVASCRIPT/AJAX selection is same reasons for using them on the desktop. Some languages are for web, some are for performance, some for portability, some of skills and preferences. JavaFX(graphics, media, web services)

105 Architecture( Manged Vs. native)
If you write programs for the mobile devices you should plan to work in the Compact Framework using “managed” code This makes your programs Portable Safe Easy to write

106 Native (unmanaged) code
compiled for the specific hardware in the device Has direct access to the processor instruction set

107 Managed Code Programs execute within a managed environment
Code is not produced for a specific target hardware Code is validated before execution

108 So, Rules To Code By Use Managed Code wherever possible
Good reasons to use Native Code: You *really* want speed You *really* want to drive the hardware directly You are being paid *really* large sums of money to do it

109 Why Android? Open source Easy to develop Wide tech support
Android is going to be the #1 Mobile Os in the market by 2014 !

110 Developers Toolkits… To start to develop you need: JDK Eclipse IDE
ADT plug-in Android SDK

111 Mobile Application • Group project developing mobile app and demo.
A chance to demonstrate your creativity! Surprise price for the Best App!

112 Application Categories
•  Informational –  Converters, weather, area-guides, finance –  Location-based •  Data Entry –  Business records, medical records, exercise –  Send info to server for aggregation? •  Multimedia –  Camera, video, music, photos, ringtones •  Shopping –  m-commerce, compare prices

113 Application Categories
•  (Social) Networks –  IM, MySpace, Facebook •  Communication –  Skype, VoIP, SMS •  Business productivity –  spreadsheets, inventory •  Utilities –  Torch (flashlight), notepad, stopwatch •  Games

114 Summary Computing Trend Existing computing paradigms
Mobile computing applications Different types of mobile devices Mobile OS Mobile Software Development

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