Presentation on theme: "Mobile Computing The iphone Projection keyboard Andriod MyVu"— Presentation transcript:
1 Mobile Computing The iphone Projection keyboard Andriod MyVu Portable projectorsThe iPad
2 Chapter Outline Definition Trends of computing Mobile devices Mobile computing issues & ChallengesMobile computing applications & platformsMobile OS
3 The activity of performing computations. What is computing?The activity of performing computations.ORComputing can also be defined as the activity of using computer hardware and software for some purpose .
4 Computing Trend Size Number 1960’s 1980’s 2000’s One Computer for One Person(PC Computing)One Computer for Many People(Mainframe Computing)Many Computer for One Person(Pervasive Computing)1960’s1980’s2000’s
6 Computing Paradigms… Personal computing system Characterized by refers to the use of personal computersfor Computation.Characterized byLocal software installation,Local system maintenanceCustomizable to user needsVery low utilization(1980’s)
7 Computing Paradigms… Distributed computing : Distributed system refers to the use of distributed systems to solve computational problems.Distributed system consists of multiple autonomous computers that communicate through a computer network.it appears to its users as a single coherent system.Eg. GOOGLE , bank data base ,each keeping local copy ,
8 Distributed computing example: surfing the web from different terminals on university . Each web page consists of hypertext, pictures, movies and elements anywhere on the internet
10 Distributed computing… Distributed systems are characterized by:remote information access (Message passing )High availability (replication , mirrored execution, ...)fault tolerance (atomic transactions, consistency …)Security
11 Computing Paradigms… Parallel Computing Characterized by Calculations of large problems are divided into smaller parts and carried out simultaneously /concurrently on different processors.Characterized byShared memory (to exchange information between processors)
13 Computing Paradigms… What is Mobile Computing? Mobile Computing Able to move freely.usually Wireless is need to move freely .ComputingThe activity of performing computations.A simple answer =>Performing computation in mobile units
14 Mobile Computing Using: small size portable computers, hand-helds and other small wearable devices,To run stand-alone applications (or access remote applications) via:wireless networks: IR, BlueTooth, W-LANs, Cellular, W-Packet Data networks, SAT. etc.By:nomadic or mobile users (animals, agents, trains, cars, cell phones, ….)
15 Mobile Computing Three basic components Networks: communication Devices and computing units :mobileApplications : ComputationNetworks: mobile/wireless networks + wired networks (how to maintain the network quality and guaranteed services, …)Devices and computing units (normally limited resources, i.e., processing power, memory, energy, devices)Applications (distributed applications with mobile users and mobile data, …)
16 Computing Paradigms… Pervasive/ Ubiquitous computing is about the invisible and everywhere (every time) computingUbiquitous= “seeming to be in all places”Pervasive= “present or noticeable in every part of a thing or place”
17 Pervasive computing … Characteristics Invisible: tiny, embedded, attachable…Everywhere: wireless, dynamically configurable, remote access, adapting, …“It is about making computers so embedded, so fitting, so natural that we use them without even thinking about them.”
18 Pervasive computing Example A simple example is the automatic adjustment of heating, cooling and lighting levels in a room based on an occupant’s profile.refrigerators "aware" of their suitably tagged contents, able to both plan a variety of menus from the food actually on hand, and warn users of stale or spoiled food.
19 Pervasive computing Characterized by : Context Awareness (physical location, physiological state, emotional state,….. distraction-free)Ad-hoc NetworksSmart Spaces,(equipped with visual and audio sensing systems )Smart Sensors, Wearables…"Smart spaces" are ordinary environments equipped with visual and audio sensing systems that can perceive and react to people without requiring them to wear any special equipment
20 Cloud Computing“Cloud computing provides computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services.”Cloud computing characteristics: Agility, Reduced Cost, Device And Location Independence, On-demand Scalability And Performance
23 Mobile devicesA mobile device (a.k.a. handheld device, handheld computer) is a pocket-sized computing device, typically having a display screen with touch input or a miniature keyboard.Due to the rapid advancement of the technology its hard to make a specific classifications of mobile devices.In this section I will try to give some overview of the current major handheld devices.
24 Different types of mobile devices LaptopNotebookNetbookUltra-Mobile PCCommunication devicespagerSmartphonePDA &Pocket PCcell phoneCordless phoneTablet PCE-book readers
26 Mobile devices… Laptop in general is a small personal computer designed for portability.Usually all of the interface hardware(ports, graphics card, sound channel, etc.,) are built in to a single unit.Contain batteries that can power the device for some periods of time.upgrade is usually difficult/impossible. ( Keyboard / display)One main drawback of the laptop is sometimes, due to the size and configuration of components, relatively little can be done to upgrade the overall computer from its original design. Internal upgrades are either not manufacturer recommended, can damage the laptop if done with poor care or knowledge, or in some cases impossible, making the desktop PC more modular. Some internal upgrades, such as memory and hard disks upgrades are often easy, a display or keyboard upgrade is usually impossible
27 Laptop… Notebook Screen -(10” and above) Purpose- (multi- purpose) Weight – (light)Computing power (high )heavy multi-tasking loads e.g creating and editing HD video or computer aided engineering SWs.contain high capacity batteries. interface hardware( graphics card, sound channel, etc., are built in to a single unit)display or keyboard upgrade
28 Laptop… Netbook Screen -(7”-10”) Purpose Weight – (very light) (limited,.. internet, basic applications)Weight – (very light)Computing power (low )Used for basic applications. E.g. Office applicationsLonger battery life.
29 Laptop… Ultra mobile-pcs(UMPCs) Screen -(4”-7”) Purpose (very limited,…, Internet, veiw info)Weight –(very very light)Computing power (very low )Used for basic applications. E.g. Office applicationsLonger battery life. UMPCs are pocketable!reduced specification (lack CD-drive, LAN )
30 Communication devices… PagerBeeperbecause of the sound it madeVoice Tone PagersRecorded Voice message.Numeric Pagerscan display up to twenty digits at a time.Alphanumeric Pagersmodified versions of numeric pagers withsophisticated display to accommodate text
31 Communication devices… Two-way Alphanumeric pagers are alphanumeric pagers capable of both sending & receiving text messages.Still used inemergency services .fire & police stations.large hospital complex, where cellular coverage isoften weak or nonexistentFancy Restaurant( waiting staff )
32 Communication devices… Mobile phone/cellphoneProvidesvoice communications,Short Message Service (SMS),Multimedia Message Service (MMS),newer phones also provideInternet servicesWeb browsing, instant messaging capabilities &.
33 Communication devices… PDA: Personal Digital Assistantdesigned primarily to provide the functionality of maintaining appointments, tasks, contacts, etc.usually pen-based,(use a stylus rather than a keyboard for input)Today PDAs function as acellular phone, fax sender, Web browser and personal organizer.Traditional PDAs have not had phone or fax servicesPocket PC: A type of PDA/smartphone which runs WindowsMobile as its operating system.
35 Communication devices… Smart phonetraditional PDA + cellular phonecombines standard phone features,such as making and receiving phone calls,with computer functionality.IncorporatesWi-Fi access, , calendars andGPSlet you store information & install programsallow the user to download additional applications and personalize the device, similar to a computer
37 Communication devices… Cordless telephoneis a telephone with a wirelesshandset that communicatesvia radio wave with base stationconnected to a fixed telephone line
38 Mobile devices…Tablet PCportable personal computer equipped with a touch screen as a primary input device and designed to be operated and owned by an individual.use virtual keyboards and handwriting recognition for text input through the touchscreen.Tablet PCs also can be connected to a full-size keyboard and monitor
39 Two main types of tablet PCs: Convertible -look a lot like normal laptops except the screen can be rotated all the way around and laid down flat across the Keyboard.Slate- looks like a flat screen without a keyboard
40 Tablet PC… advantage Great mobility Save money digital ink stationer costs stays in your pocketdigital ink record your handwriting and drawingspens, pencils, highlighters, notepads,papers, binders, folders, staples, andpaperclips
41 Mobile devices… E-book reader Support - Text to Speech portable electronic device thatis designed primarily for the purposeof reading digital books and publication.Support- Text to Speech- Internet Capabilities( Wi-Fi ,3G)Pocket PC: A type of PDA which runs WindowsMobile as its operating system
43 Mobile computing application Transportposition and tracking via GPSprevent accidents, navigation system.Tourist navigationEmergencies/ Disaster reliefearly transmission of patient data to the hospital, current status, first diagnosis.earthquakes, hurricanes, fire etc.Emergencies
44 Mobile computing application… BusinessM-Commerce: mobile E-commerce /shopping …M-Banking: offer mobile access to financial and account information.Advertising: using SMS is becoming very popular in our country.Traveling salespersonEntertainment, educationoutdoor Internet accessmulti user gamesM-learning : E-learningdirect access to customer files stored in a central locationDashen Bank in Ethiopia has launched its mobile banking service ‘Modbirr’. The service will entitle customers to conduct banking transactions using their mobile phone anytime, anywhere.
45 Dashen bankThe first mobileBanking service inEthiopia
46 Mobile computing application… Location awarefind services in the local environment, e.g. printernearest cash ATM/ shop / restaurant/hotelWeb access & Communicationoutdoor Internet accessElectronic MailChattingApplication Services in generalpush: e.g., breaking news infopull: e.g., nearest cash ATMa mobile agent is a composition of computer software and data which is able to migrate (move) from one computer to another autonomously and continue its execution on the destination computer
47 NextBus: Customer Service The ProblemBuses in San Francisco have difficulty keeping to 20 minute schedule during rush hoursPosted schedule becomes meaninglessThe SolutionBus riders carrying Internet-enabled cell phone or PDA helps:Find estimated arrival time at each stop, digitally in real timeSoon location-based advertisements will pop up—you have time to get a cup of coffee before the bus arrives—Starbuck’s is 200 feet to the right
48 NextBus (cont.) The Results Passengers in San Francisco are happy with the systemWorries about missing the bus are diminishedMay discover they have time for a cup of coffee before the bus arrivesBus company can:Schedule betterArrange for extra buses when neededImprove operations
57 Types of Mobile OS Symbian Market share(2010): 37.6%( #1 ) License : open sourceCompany: Nokia.CPU Architecture: ARMProgrammed in: C++Application store: Symbian Horizon,Ovistore(10000+)Package manager: Nokia Ovi SuiteOther: multi-touch, easily affordable cost
58 Symbian (Nokia) Pros Issues Massive global reach Leads WW market with 62% of smartphone trafficbeing open source could help accelerate pace of innovationIssuesLimited reach in the USApplication distribution more difficult today vs. iPhone’s app storeManufacturer dependent
59 Types of Mobile OS Android Market share(2010): 22.7% License : open sourceCompany: Open Handset Alliance(Google).CPU Architecture: ARM, x86Programmed in: C, C++, JavaApplication store: Android market(100,000+)Package manager: APKOther: multi-touch, Linux
60 Android (Google) Pros: Issues: Open source => accelerate pace of innovationManufacturer-independent => could help accelerate consumer adoptionTechnology support (e.g., touchscreen, GPS, accelerometer, video and still cameras)Issues:Late to market relative to iPhone
61 Accelerometer“An accelerometer is a device that measures the proper acceleration of the device. This is not necessarily the same as the coordinate acceleration (change of velocity of the device in space), but is rather the type of acceleration associated with the phenomenon of weight experienced by a test mass that resides in the frame of reference of the accelerometer device.For an example of where these types of acceleration differ, an accelerometer will measure a value when sitting on the ground, because masses there have weights, even though they do not change velocity. However, an accelerometer in gravitational free fall toward the center of the Earth will measure a value of zero because, even though its speed is increasing, it is in an inertial frame of reference, in which it is weightless.”
62 GyroscopeA gyroscope is a device for measuring orientation, based on conservation of angular momentum.2010: $5, based on MEMS technologya single part with gyroscopic sensors and an accelerometeroutput up to six full degrees of freedom.
63 Proximity sensorA proximity sensor detects the presence of nearby objects without physical contact
64 Sensors Ambient Light Sensor 3D Accelerometer Proximity Sensor Temperature and Pressure Sensor
65 Types of Mobile OS BlackBerry RIM OS Market share(2010): 16.0% License : ProprietaryCompany: Research in motion (RIM).CPU Architecture: ARMProgrammed in: JavaApplication store: Blackberry App World(30000+)Package manager: Blackberry Desktop ManagerOther: not multi-touch, push servicePush is used to describe systems that provide an always-on capability, in which new is actively transferred (pushed) as it arrives
66 BlackBerry OS (RIM) Pros: Large reach and data-hungry user base Leads US market with 31% of smartphone traffic#3in WW market with 11% of smartphone trafficDevelopers not limited to single distribution channelIssues:Less Developer momentumApplication distribution more difficult today vs. iPhone’s app storeUsers more focused vs. web consuming iPhone usersRIM / hardware dependent
67 Types of Mobile OS Apple iOS Market share(2010): 15.7% License : ProprietaryCompany: Apple.CPU Architecture: ARMProgrammed in: C, C++, Objective-CApplication store: Apple App Store(300,000+)Package manager: iTunesOther: Mac OS X, multi-touch, for iphone ,ipod touch ipad, Apple Tv only
68 iPhone OS (Apple) Strong user growth and data-hungry user base Pros:Strong user growth and data-hungry user baseMore than 10 million iPhones soldApplication store creating a vibrant app ecosystem with great momentumMore than 3K applications (~20% free)More than 1 million downloadsPowerful technology (e.g., multi-touch, GPS, accelerometer)Issues:App approval process is largely a black-box to developersApps viewed as competitive to Apple are often shut downApp store is the only authorized distribution channelApple / hardware dependent
69 Types of Mobile OS Windows Mobile Market share(2010): 4.2% License : ProprietaryCompany: Microsoft.CPU Architecture: ARMProgrammed in: C++Application store: Windows Marketplace for MobilePackage manager: Windows Mobile Device Center/ ActiveSyncOther: multi-touch, Windows CE
70 Windows Mobile Pros Strong user reach #2 in US market with 30% of smartphone trafficManufacturer independent>18K appsWindows Mobile 7 support refurbish UI and multi- touchIssuesLess developer enthusiasm vs. that for iPhone and AndroidApplication distribution more difficult today vs. iPhone’s app store
71 Types of Mobile OS Others Palm OS- mobile operating system initially developed by PalmwebOS – Mobile operating system from HP/PalmBada - Mobile operating system developed by Samsung ElectronicsMeeGo OS – from Nokia and Intel (open source, GPL)
73 More on Mobile OS Metrics Mobile OS introductions / summaries AdMob metrics (Opera State of the Mobile Web Report (Mobile OS introductions / summariesComparison / analysis
74 Mobile Computing Issues: Mobile device issuesShort battery lifetime (Lithium ion battery: 5 hrs max)Limited hardware (display, memory, disk space, etc).Prone to theft and destructionUnavailable (frequently powered-off)Few standards (hardware, architecture, etc)Networking issuesMobile connectivity is highly variable in performance and reliability.(unpredictable variation in network quality)Routing data and messages(variable location)Some buildings may offer reliable, high-bandwidth wireless connectivity while others may only offer low-bandwidth connectivity. Outdoors, a mobile client may have to rely on a low-bandwidth wireless systems
76 Limitations of the Mobile Environment Limitations of the Wireless Networkheterogeneity of fragmented networksfrequent disconnectionslimited communication bandwidthLimitations Imposed by MobilityLimitations of the Mobile Computer
77 Challenges Disconnection Low bandwidth High bandwidth variability Low power and resourcesSecurity risksWide variety terminals and devices with different capabilitiesDevice attributesFit more functionality into single, smaller device
78 Mobile computing issues & Challenges Location issuesConnection QualityDevice limitationsActive transactionSecurity risksWide variety terminals and devices with different capabilities
79 Challenges Location Device location is always changing Mobility: challenges and opportunitiesLocalization & Location sensitivity
80 Location…Localization is the ability of the architecture of the mobile application to accommodate logic that allows the selection of different business logic, level of work flow, and interfaces based on a given set of location information commonly referred to as locales.E.g Location in Ethiopia currency ETB , TAX… e-commerce Web sites are able to take into account the different taxation rules depending on the locale of the sale and the location of the purchase
81 Location…Location sensitivity is the ability of the device and the software application to first obtain location information while being used and then to take advantage of this location information in offering features and functionality.
82 Colleting location methods for collecting location Techniques Prompt the user to select the locationUsing the device( GPS, signal strength and triangulation can be used to come up with some approximate location information, depending on the cellular network)TechniquesTriangulationProximityscene analysisTriangulation (Figure 1.4) relies on age-old geometric methods that allow calculationof the location of a point that lies in the middle of three other pointswhose exact locations are known. If the distance to each one of the three pointsis known, we can use geometric techniques to calculate the exact location of theunknown point. Proximity-based methods measure the relative position of the unknownpoint to some known point. Scene analysis relies on image processing andtopographical techniques to calculate the location of the unknown point based ona view of the unknown point from a known point.
83 • Location Dependent Services – Discovery: What services exist in my local environment? e.g., printers, file and compute services, special local applications, etc. – Follow me services: “Route calls to my current location,” “Migrate my workstation desktop to the nearest workstation screen” – Information services: » Broadcast/“push” information (e.g., “Flight 59 will depart from Gate 23”) » “Pull” information (e.g., “What gate will Flight 59 depart from?”) – Service migration: computations, caches, state, etc. follow mobile device as it moves through the network – Privacy: what applications can track user locations?
84 Location-Based Applications (LBAs) Examples:Location-based recommendations, geo-taggingGeoLife: shopping list when near a grocery storeTrafficSense: real-time traffic conditionsFieldworker assistantLocation expresses context of userFacilitates content delivery
86 Connection …. Quality of Service Wireless connection is used usually mobility means loss of network connectivity reliability.Frequent DisconnectionVariable Bandwidth( indoor , outdoor)Heterogeneous Networks (2G,3G, Satellite, wifi..
87 Frequent Disconnections Handoff blank out (>1ms for most cellulars)Drained battery disconnectionVoluntary disconnection (turned off to preserve battery power, also off overnight)Theft and damage (hostile environment)Roam-off disconnections
88 Connection…. Address Migration Mobile IP Existing applications send packets to a fixed network addressNeed to support dynamically changing “local” addresses as mobile device moves through networkMobile IPApps should stop & resume must know how to deal with lack of reliable connectivity.E.g user traveling in a train and downloading report using his PDA while passing through a tunnel .
89 Solution variable Bandwidth » Caching is a good idea, e.g., web cacheAsynchronous/spool-oriented applications, like mail or printing» Trickle back data when bandwidth is availableDisconnected file systems:Applications adaptation to changing quality of connectivity» High bandwidth, low latency: business as usual» High bandwidth, high latency: aggressive pre fetching» Low bandwidth, high latency: asynchronousVertical handoff in case of heterogeneous network.
91 Device limitation … Mobile device are small! Physical limitation => Display , Memory, Cpu, Power… limitationsThe heaviest part of mobile devices are batteries
92 Mobile Computers CPUs RAM Persistent Storage Multiple cores Mega Hertz. 1 Giga Hertz newRAM512 MB, common in 2011in Giga Bytes newPersistent Storage32 GB MicroSD common in 2011
93 Limitations of the Mobile Computer Short battery lifetime (max ~ 5 hours)Subject to theft and destruction => unreliableHighly unavailable (normally powered-off to conserve battery)Limited capability (display, memory, input devices, and disk space)Lack of de-facto general architecture: hand-helds, communicators, laptops, and other devices
95 Device limitation … Varying user interface some alternative interfaces are voice user interfaces, smaller displays, stylus and other pointing devices, touch-screen displays, and miniature keyboardsFor example, drivers who want to get some directions to their destination may use a data-enabled cellular phone.Most apps must be multichannel /multimodal
96 Active transaction Active transaction most stationary applications, passive systems because they are in a passive state, waiting for some external signal from the user to tell them to start doing some particular thing..then comes message based system any one participant in the system could send a message to another participant in the system. and, if desired, in an asynchronous manner.
97 Active transaction..Later came the idea of push. In the push model of communication, an information producer announces the availability of certain types of information, an interested consumer subscribes to this information, and the producer periodically publishes the information (pushes it to the consumer).There is much in common between the concepts of messaging systems and push systems. The principle difference is that messaging systems are asynchronous by definition. This requirement does not exist for push based systems. Push systems, by deﬁnition, are active systems.
98 Active transaction…we will define active transactions as those transactions initiated by the system. Active transactions may be synchronous or asynchronous.Synchronous transactions are time dependent transactions.
99 Mobile software development(WHY?) MotivationIn Africa:+ 1 billion people+ 30 million computers+ 264 million mobilesLargest growth rate of mobile subscribersFor most Africans/Ethiopians , our mobile is our only computing device!
100 Mobile Application Marketplaces • Google, Apple, Nokia, Palm, etc. have mobilemarketplaces where one can sell applications.– Application delivery over the Network!• Apple iPhone App store:– 350,000 applications– 1 Billion downloads !– $1 Million USD a day in sales!
101 Mobile Software Development ChallengesDifferent Operating Systems.Different Screen Size.are a challenge even on the same OSDifferent Input methods.Keyboard (Keypad – Keyboard – Soft Keyboard),TrackBall/Joystick, Pen (Handwriting), Touch,Microphone (Voice Command), Camera (Image Recognition), GPSsome with both touch and keyboard
102 Different Hardware Architectures. most dominant architectures in the market of CPUs is the ARM architectureLimited computing capabilities.Lack of good language supportSecurityAlways shared medium
103 Mobile Software Development Solutions to ChallengesMulti Modal Interface.E.g Combining the face and speech recognition together helps to increase speech recognition accuracy and lower word error rateSimplified Algorithms (Speed ).Data Compression (Size & Speed).Programming Language Selection.Screen independent graphical coordinates or layout managers.Unicode SupportEncryption and authentication
105 Architecture( Manged Vs. native) If you write programs for the mobile devices you should plan to work in the Compact Framework using “managed” codeThis makes your programsPortableSafeEasy to write
106 Native (unmanaged) code compiled for the specific hardware in the deviceHas direct access to the processor instruction set
107 Managed Code Programs execute within a managed environment Code is not produced for a specific target hardwareCode is validated before execution
108 So, Rules To Code By Use Managed Code wherever possible Good reasons to use Native Code:You *really* want speedYou *really* want to drive the hardware directlyYou are being paid *really* large sums of money to do it
109 Why Android? Open source Easy to develop Wide tech support Android is going to be the #1 Mobile Os in the market by 2014 !
110 Developers Toolkits… To start to develop you need: JDK Eclipse IDE ADT plug-inAndroid SDK
111 Mobile Application • Group project developing mobile app and demo. A chance to demonstrate your creativity!Surprise price for the Best App!
112 Application Categories • Informational– Converters, weather, area-guides, finance– Location-based• Data Entry– Business records, medical records, exercise– Send info to server for aggregation?• Multimedia– Camera, video, music, photos, ringtones• Shopping– m-commerce, compare prices