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Computer Basics An overview of computer hardware ICT Tools: Computer Basics.

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Presentation on theme: "Computer Basics An overview of computer hardware ICT Tools: Computer Basics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Computer Basics An overview of computer hardware ICT Tools: Computer Basics

2 Types of Computers Computers come in all shapes and sizes, from tiny PDAs (personal digital assistants) to PC (personal computer) towers. Handheld (HPC) Laptop PDA Tower Workstation Desktop ICT Tools: Computer Basics

3 Computer Structure The diagram below shows a simple structure for the operation of a computer. Data is obtained for processing by the computer and then the results of the processing are output from the system. InputOutput Data Storage Process ICT Tools: Computer Basics

4 Input There are a wide range of input devices. Some of these input devices make use of human touch, light, magnetism, sound and control sensors. ICT Tools: Computer Basics

5 The Processor The Central Processing Unit (CPU) can be considered the ‘brains’ of your computer. It consists of a single chip inside a computer that does most of the work. It takes the information from the input devices and instructions from memory, processes the information and then sends the result to storage or to an output device. Processors inside a modern PC include Intel Pentium III and Intel Celeron. The power of the processor is indicated by its operating speed measured in MegaHertz, (MHz). ICT Tools: Computer Basics

6 Types of Memory All computers have memory to store instructions and data. There are two main types of memory RAM (random access memory) This is a temporary storage for data. Typical RAM in a desktop PC may be 64 megabytes (MB). The RAM clears when your computer is switched off. ROM (read only memory) This is memory stored in a chip which is not lost when the power is turned off. On most PCs this memory is quite small. It contains the essential instructions for the computer to start. ICT Tools: Computer Basics

7 Data Storage Computers need both long-term storage (e.g. saving a graph to be printed out at a later date) and short term storage (eg remembering subtotals in calculations). Short term storage Computers use the RAM to store data temporarily while you work on it. Once you are happy with the job, you store it on the hard disk. Long term storage Floppy disks, magnetic tape, etc can be used to offload confidential data from the hard disk. ICT Tools: Computer Basics

8 Modem This is a device that allows computers to transmit information to one another via an ordinary telephone line. A modem can be either internal or it can be an external device. ICT Tools: Computer Basics

9 Parts of a PC A PC is a small desktop computer, normally made up of three basic groups: a base unit – containing processor, memory and disc drives a keyboard with a mouse and a monitor peripherals – additional devices connected to the computer. ICT Tools: Computer Basics

10 Parts of a PC ICT Tools: Computer Basics

11 Inside a PC If you were to remove the outer casing of your PC you could look around inside, and you would find: ICT Tools: Computer Basics

12 Inside a PC A peripheral includes such things as a monitor, mouse, keyboard, modem, scanner, digital camera, and printer. Many of these devices attach to a expansion card. The power supply converts the electricity from the wall outlet into the correct voltage for the computer. Hard drive This is entirely internal. It is a rectangle about the size of a medium paperback book. Microprocessor: a small, integrated electronic circuit that can performs specific tasks. Microprocessors (or chips) are located in all parts of the hardware. ICT Tools: Computer Basics

13 Behind a PC External devices connect to the computer in the back. the arrangement of these is quite varied from machine to machine. Note that many of the connectors come in two types: male and female. The male has the pins while the female has the holes. In Activity 2, you will look at these connections in more detail. Serial Male Serial Female ICT Tools: Computer Basics

14 In this section you will become more familiar with the terms used by computer manufacturers when discussing computer specifications you can use this knowledge to will help you to choose the right system for your needs. ICT Tools: Computer Basics

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