Assessing Health The Bio-psycho-social Model Biological: body, brain, genetic factors Psychological: Lack of self-control, emotional turmoil, negative thinking/emotions, emotional stress Social: social, economic, technological, religious aspects of cultures
Influences on Physical Growth & Health Genetics Infectious disease Childhood injuries Hormones Emotional well-being Nutrition
NUTRITION IN INFANCY Infants need about 50 calories per pound per day: about twice the nutritional needs of adults Breast feeding is better than formula and is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for up to one year
Advantages of breast feeding Correct balance of fat & protein Protects against disease & tooth decay Easily digested Better cognitive development & visual acuity NUTRITION IN INFANCY
Breast feeding lowers risk of: later obesity allergies infections including diarrhea and otitis media cancer & breast cancer in mother SIDS NUTRITION IN INFANCY
Why mothers don’t breast feed. –Inability –Ignorance –Inconvenience –Illness (e.g., AIDS) –Use of drugs
leads to smaller body size leads to learning & behavior problems Attention, fine motor coord., IQ scores (effects may be long-term or permanent.) More of a problem in developing countries Marasmus and Kwashiorkor Malnutrition
marasmus due to insufficient calorie intake shrunken, wasted appearance Kwashiorkor protein deficiency feet and abdomen swell with water Malnutrition
Some studies found iron, zinc, & vitamin D deficiencies WIC – Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (7,500,000 low-income participants) Malnutrition in Childhood: United States
Teenage Nutrition Overall poor Iron deficiency most common Calcium deficiency due to bone growth Obese children do not outgrow weight problems Adolescent girls - fad dieting Obesity also a problem
Anorexia Nervosa Usually begins early to middle teens Starts with serious dieting & life stress. Most are female, high SES, white Competitive & high achieving Suffer malnutrition 6% die of physical complications or suicide Family therapy most successful treatment
Anorexia Nervosa Weigh less than 85% of normal for age and height Intense fear of gaining weight that does not decrease with weight loss Distorted image of body shape. Appear fat to themselves even when very thin.
Bulimia Nervosa Binge and purge pattern Fear of overweight Depressed & anxious 90% women Damage throat, stomach, teeth Some perfectionists, lack self-control Guilty and desperate to get help About 70% recover
Obesity: U. S. & Western Nations There has been a marked rise in obesity in the U.S. and other Western nations. Percentage doubled since 1980; quadrupled since 1965 U.S. may have 2 nd highest rate 15% of U.S. children 6-11 overweight Less common in African American than white children; trend reverses in adolescence
Consequences of Obesity Problems with social acceptance Stereotyped as lazy, sloppy, ugly, stupid, self-doubting, deceitful Depressed, unhappy, bullied Risk for high blood pressure, cholesterol, adult-onset diabetes, gallbladder disease, some cancers, early death, sleep apnea, hip problems
Treating Obesity Individual/clinical programs work best (not school based) Exercise is key Moderate calorie restriction produces best long-term results Behavioral therapy (e.g., keeping food diaries) also effective
Nutrition Adult Dieting People who lost weight and maintain the loss become less depressed and reduce health risks. Studies comparing weight-loss programs shows about equal effectiveness. The most effective programs include exercise. Yo-Yo dieting may increase health risks.
Nutrition: Vitamins & Aging Those who take supplements show improved health & physical functioning Protein supplements may increase muscle mass Taking prescription drugs changes nutritional needs, rates of absorption Effective doses, side-effects not known
Nutrition: Vitamins & Aging Antioxidants (A,C, beta carotene) may slow aging & improve older adult health Vitamin C deficiency associated with earlier death Vitamin E associated with reduced heart risk Calcium, vitamin D delay osteoporosis. Zinc, B 6, C, and E improve immune function B vitamins improve cognitive function
EXERCISE - CHILDREN Only 22 % of U.S. children in grades 4- 12 are physically active for at least 30 minutes every day. Television & computer games are part of the problem. Also other lifestyle issues The problem tends to increase as children become adolescents.
Physical Education The average American school child gets only 20 minutes of physical education per week. Informal games should be emphasized rather than organized sports.
Exercise - Adulthood Only 15-20% of Americans get 20 minutes of exercise 5 times per week. Experts recommend that adults engage in 45 minutes or more of moderate physical activity on most or all days. Some experts stress aerobic exercise – sustained activity that stimulates heart & lung function (jogging, cycling, swimming)
Exercise & Longevity In one study, people who were less fit were more likely to die during the 8-year course of the study. In another study of people in their 40s to the 80s, beginning an exercise program was associated with a 23% lower risk of death.
Benefits of Exercise enhances the immune system. reduces body fat and builds muscle. linked with reduced rates of cancer, especially colon cancer. strengthens the heart muscle and produces HDL cholesterol reduces anxiety and depression, improves mood, and enhances alertness and energy.
Exercise & Aging Strength training as well as aerobic exercise is recommended for older adults. Endurance training produces gains in vital capacity to age 80 (oldest tested). Weight-bearing exercise promotes muscle size and strength, blood flow to muscles to age 90 (oldest tested). Exercise increases blood circulation to the brain & reduces cognitive declines.
Exercise & Aging (Singh, 2000) Minimizes aging, contributes to health Optimize body composition (muscle v. fat) Prevents common diseases Improves treatment of some diseases Helps prevent & treat disabilities Counteracts side-effects of standard medical care Linked to increased longevity
SUBSTANCE ABUSE & ADDICTION Smoking is related to many deaths –30% of cancer deaths –21% of heart disease deaths –82% of chronic pulmonary disease deaths
Substance Use & Abuse By HS graduation, 22 % of teens smoke, 60% have engaged in heavy drinking at least once, 50+% have experimented with illegal drugs Experimenters usually quit Abusers are more likely to be troubled and tend to become addicted
Smoking Decreases delivery of oxygen to tissues –Limited night vision, skin wrinkling, loss of bone mass, lower sperm count, male impotence Causes heart rate and blood pressure to rise Increased risks of heart attack, stroke, and cancer of the mouth, throat, larynx, esophagus, lungs, pancreas, kidneys, and bladder Considered the single most important preventable cause of death in industrialized nations
Substance Abuse Half of all smokers have quit. U.S. men 50% in 1965 to 25%. Most of the drop is among college graduates, Decline among high-school students, but smoking among college students has risen. Link between smoking and mortality is dose related
Trends in Drug Use: University of Michigan Institute for Survey Research Drug use among high-school students in the U.S. declined (1980s), increased (1990s), and has recently leveled off. U.S. still has the highest rate of adolescent drug use of any industrialized nation. Increasing abuse of prescription and OTC medications (oxycontin, vicodin, adderal)
How Can Drug Use be Prevented? Parental involvement –Setting limits –Monitoring Early risk factors (kindergarten) –Male –Substance-abusing parent –Low level of parental reasoning –Low level of problem-solving skills
Drinking in College & Early Adulthood Almost half of U.S. college students drink heavily. They report problems with missed classes, grades, the police, physical injuries, & unprotected sex About 44% binge drink, including 70% living away from home
SUBSTANCE ABUSE & ADDICTION 13 million people in the U.S. are alcoholics –Yearly 25.000 people are killed and 1.5 million injured by drunk drivers –Alcohol is implicated in 65% of aggressive acts by males against females
Substance abuse slows by mid-20s College students drink more than their age counterparts. Those who don’t attend college smoke more. Singles use marijuana more than married. Drinking is heaviest among singles and divorced. Religious people are less likely to take drugs.