Presentation on theme: "Special Education Policies, Practices, and Programs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Special Education Policies, Practices, and Programs Gargiulo Ch. 1 and 2
2 Special EducationSpecially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other settings.
3 Special EducationSpecial Education serves students from birth until age 22The majority of special education teachers work with student with mild-to-moderate disabilities (ex: learning disabilities.)These teachers use or modify the general education curriculum to meet the student’s individual needs.Some special education teachers work with students with moderate-severe disabilities (ex: cognitive disability or severe autism)For these students there is more emphasis on life skills and basic literacy.
4 Key Special Education Legislation Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)Began in 1975 as PL : Education for All Handicapped Children ActAmended in 1986In 1990 renamed IDEAAmended in 1997 and 2004
5 PL 94-142 Considered the most important law in special education Prior to its implementation children with disabilities could be denied appropriate services in schools or refused schooling entirelyCalled the “Bill of Rights” for students with disabilities
6 Key Ideas in PL 94-142 Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)Individualized Education Program (IEP)Procedural Due ProcessNondiscriminatory AssessmentParental Participation
7 Changes in the 1986 Amendments Affected education and services for young children with special needs and their familiesPreschoolers (age 3-5)Early Childhood servicesChildren from birth through age 2Part CEarly Intervention servicesIndividualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
8 Changes in the 1990 Amendments Renamed to: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)Current language used to describe people with disabilitiesIndividual Transition Plan (ITP) requiredExpanded related servicesAdded autism and traumatic brain injury as distinct disability categoriesStates held accountable for implementation
9 Changes in the 1997 Amendments Disciplinary considerationsIEP changesRelated services expanded for visually impairedMediation procedures developedExpanded category of developmental delayEvaluation and reevaluation requirements changedPerformance goals/accountability
10 Changes in the 2004 Amendments Changed to Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) but everyone still uses IDEAAdditional procedures for identifying children with specific learning disabilities (RTI)Altered requirements for IEP meetingsIEPs must include statement of present levels of performanceHighly qualified special education teachersNew regulations for disciplineAll students participate in state and district assessments (or alternative assessments)
11 Other Legislation Impacting Special Education Two important Civil Rights laws:Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)Passed in 1990, amended in 1997Section 504 of the Rehabilitation ActPassed in 1973 (prior to EAHCA)
12 Americans With Disabilities Act Designed to eliminate discrimination against people with disabilities in the pubic and private sectors.Expanded definitions of eligibility may include people with AIDS, substance abuse issues, or any impairment that limits a major life activity.Employers, mass transit systems, and companies who provide products and services must make “reasonable accommodations.”
13 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Defines an individual with a disability as one who “has a physical or mental impairment with substantially limits one or more of the major life activities such as caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, or working.”
14 Section 504 of the Rehab Act Prohibited discrimination on the basis of handicapping condition in any educational program or activity receiving federal fund financial assistance.Schools may be required to develop plans to meet the needs of students who require accommodations. Section 504 covers the entire lifespan not just the school years.
15 Section 504 of the Rehab Act Under Section 504, a student has a disability if that individual has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits major life activities as walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, working, or learning.
16 Recent Educational Reform No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (PL )Includes annual testing for schools to demonstrate adequate yearly progress of all students in mathematics and reading
17 Key Components of Special Education Policy FAPE (free appropriate public education), required for all children with disabilities;IEP (individualized education program), the written document prepared for each eligible child receiving special education services;LRE (least restrictive environment), where children with disabilities are to receive their free appropriate public education (FAPE).
18 Key Components cont.Zero Reject-persons with severe disabilities or complex needs cannot be denied educational servicesNecessary Support Services-occupational therapy, speech pathology-are providedDue Process-one of the primary concepts of IDEA is parental participation. In order to make this a reality, the law provides ways that parents can appeal a decision by school or district personnel
21 Disability Categories Under IDEA AutismDeaf-BlindEmotional Disability (Behavioral Disability)Hearing Impairment (including Deafness)Mental Retardation (Cognitive Impairment)Multiple DisabilitiesOrthopedic ImpairmentOther Health Impairment (can include ADHD)Specific Learning DisabilitySpeech or Language ImpairmentTraumatic Brain InjuryVision ImpairmentDevelopmental Delay for children ages 3-9
22 Steps of the Special Education Process ReferralChild is referred for assessmentParental Consent/Domain MeetingParent/Guardian sign consentAssessment Domains are determinedAssessmentEvaluation is conducted by a multidisciplinary team to determine if a disability is present*process may vary if RTI being used
23 Steps of the Special Education Process Eligibility Meetingreview assessmentsdetermine adverse effects on educationdetermine needsdetermine eligibility
24 Steps of the Special Education Process IEP Meetingreview needsdetermine accommodations/ modifications neededwrite goalsdetermine timeline for meeting goalsdetermine services needed to meet goals (special education and related services)determine location for services
25 IEP Components Current performance Goals Special education and related servicesAccommodations and ModificationsParticipation with typical studentsParticipation in state- and district-wide assessmentsDates and locationsProgress measuringTransition services and Behavior plans as needed
26 Follow-Up Review IEP annually Re-evaluate eligibility every three years (unless determined unnecessary)Reconvene multidisciplinary teamComplete assessmentsEvaluate eligibilityIf student still qualifies, review/rewrite IEP (goals, services, acc/mod, etc.)
27 ReferencesGargiulo, Richard M. (2011). 4th ed. Special Education in Contemporary Society: An Instruction to Exceptionality, Los Angeles, California: Sage Publications. ISBN