Definiton \ Focus: This approach was historically used in teaching Greek and Latin. The approach was generalized to teaching modern languages. Classes are taught in the students' mother tongue, with little active use of the target language. Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists. Elaborate explanations of grammar are always provided. Grammar instruction provides the rules for putting words together; instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words. Reading of difficult texts is begun early in the course of study. Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis. Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue, and vice versa. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.
Characteristic of the grammar: The major characteristic of the grammar-translation method is, precisely as its name suggests, a focus on learning the rules of grammar and their application in translation passages from one language into the other.
Characteristic of the grammar: Vocabulary in the target language is learned through direct translation from the native language, e.g. with vocabulary tests such as: Very little teaching is done in the target language. Instead, readings in the target language are translated directly and then discussed in the native language, often precipitating in- depth comparisons of the two languages themselves. Grammar is taught with extensive explanations in the native language, and only later applied in the production of sentences through translation from one language to the other, example. the house = das Haus the mouse = die Maus
Concepts of grammar are important for two reasons: 1) Knowledge of help teachers to assess and remediate the errors and error patterns of second- language learners. 2) The points of grammar can be used as the basis for teaching sentence structure and vocabulary.
Description of how to teach an explicit grammar lesson and gramma Components of Grammar and Syntax: 1. The principle elements of the sentence Subject Verbs and verb phrases Direct and indirect object(s) Complements with verbs that express feeling, appearing, being and seeming Modifiers Clauses Phrases
Continued… 2. Parts of speech and their functions within sentences Nouns and nominals (infinitives, gerunds, etc.) Articles Verbs Pronouns Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections 3. Types of sentences and their syntax Simple Compound Complex Basic & variations on basic sentence patterns Sentence structure: Complete, incomplete, run-on, coordination of verb tenses
Continued…. 4. Verb Usage : Agreement Tense Mood Active or passive voice Sequence and consistency of tenses Modals Phrasal verbs 5. Word usage or lexicon: Idiomatic constructions Formulaic expressions Use of phrases within sentences
Using grammar points in the direct instruction of English language instruction and External Relations 1. Motivate the teaching of structures by showing how they are needed in real-life communication. 2. State the objective of the lesson. 3. Review the familiar items, e.g. calendar, time, name of objects, auxiliary verbs in the target language that will be needed to introduce, explain, or practice the new item. 4. Use the new structure (adjective of color, for example) in a brief utterance in which all the other words are known to the students. 5. Model the utterance several times.