Presentation on theme: "Introduction A computer system consists of hardware system programs application programs."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction A computer system consists of hardware system programs application programs
History of Operating Systems (1) Early batch system bring cards to 1401 read cards to tape put tape on 7094 which does computing put tape on 1401 which prints output
Computer Hardware Review (1) Components of a simple personal computer Monitor Bus
Type of Computers Supercomputing: used for scientific computing Mainframes: used to be primary form of computer, used in centralized computers, used in businesses for timesharing Servers: computers used to connect other computers to the internet, printer, file sharing, etc. Desktops: Personal Computers Workstations: More powerful version of the personal computer Handheld: Smaller operating Systems for handhelds Real Time: Operating Systems for information that needs to be updated in real time Embedded Systems: Systems that are found within another System
History of Operating Systems First Operating System Originally developed in AT&T Bell Labs (now know as Lucent Technologies) UNIX was taken to University of California Berkley leading to the foundation of the Berkeley Standard Distribution UNIX then opened up the computer industry to many other UNIX type operating systems and more To date, Apple MAC OS X is the most widely used desktop version of UNIX
Types of Operating Systems UNIX Linux Windows MAC OS Go on to next page
Linux Free UNIX-type operating system Linus Torvalds started creating in 1991 Started out as MINIX then formed into Linux Continuously updated Popular among college students Intended for small servers, workstations, desktops, and handhelds Cost: Free
What is Unix? A fully featured modern operating system It is available in a variety of “flavors.” It’s comprised of simple tools that perform a single function well. These tools can be used together to perform complex tasks.
A Little History First: UNIX Initial design by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and others at AT&T's Bell Telephone Laboratories (BTL) in 1969: 32 years ago! AT&T made the source available to Universities for research and educational use. 1973 UNIX was rewritten in C resulting in Version 4. The C language was also originally designed and developed for use on the UNIX system by Dennis Ritchie C was evolved from 'B', developed by Thompson.
Commercialization Interactive Systems first commercial (1977) Microsoft and SCO release XENIX (1980) 1982 Bill Joy left Berkeley and founded Sun Microsystems. SunOS originall based on BSD 4.2 SunOS 5 (Solaris 2.X) was a collaborative effort based on System V, release 4 (SVR4). AIX from IBM HP/UX from Hewlett Packard Corporation ULTRIX from Digitial Equipment Corporation, followed by DEC OSF/1. DEC purchased by Compaq
Unix is Made Up of Processes Running Programs Running Programs User owned System owned Files Regular Files: Regular Files: – Data – Executables <-- usually start a process Directory Files Directory Files – Contain other files and directories Special Files Special Files
Our View of the World as Users Unix Shell Your Shell A shell is a process that acts as an interface to the OS. It allows the user to run programs individually and together to accomplish a task.
Fred Kuhns ()CS523S: Operating Systems Simple Unix Directory Structure / usr etchome binvar... localbin... classgradugrad... mmscott jpeckhar...
Your First Command Syntax: man topic man provides online documentation on nearly every standard command and configuration file. Optional Syntax: man -k keyword man man for more details Man(manual) -- Documentation is your friend
Special Directories Home Directory /home/grad/jpeckhar ~jpeckhar ~ A user generally has permission to freely manipulate files within this directory and its children. Users start with their home directory as their pwd when they login.
Changing Directories The cd(Change Directory) command is used to change directories cd path Paths can be relative or absolute pwd reports present working directory cd when entered by itself sets the pwd to the user’s home directory.
Other File System Utilities ls Lists all files in a directory cp Copies files mv Moves files rm Deletes files mkdir Makes directories rmdir Removes directories
Basic Syntax ls cpcp source dest OR cp source … dir mvmv source dest OR mv source … dir rmrm file mkdirmkdir new directory name rmdirrmdir directory to be removed
Using Other Commands Syntax: command file catEchos file contents to the screen grepSearches a file for a string moreEchos a file a line at a time lessSame as more but more features wcCounts the words in a file and more sortSorts the contents of a file
Pipes Pipes connect stdout of one command to stdin of another comand. i.e. ls | less cat student_list | grep senior | sort
I/O Redirection I/O redirection allows the user to change where input to a command or output from a command goes to/comes from. cat student_list > outfile program < infile program outfile
Standard File Handles Every Unix process automatically comes with three file handles or descriptors. These are: Standard Input (stdin) Keyboard Standard Output (stdout) Display Standard Error (stderr) Display (unbuff)