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Byzantine Empire and Islam

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1 Byzantine Empire and Islam
Unit 4 & 5 Byzantine Empire and Islam

2 Byzantine Empire ( ) Constantine moves capital to Constantinople --located on land route between Europe and Asia --will go on to last for another 1,000 years

3 Byzantine Religion United by their own form of Christianity—Eastern Orthodox Schism--EO did not recognize the pope in Rome as head of the Church, had their own patriarch in Constantinople & along with emperor they control church --used icons (images of Jesus and the Saints) to decorate Church’s, spread influence

4 Byzantine Culture Byzantine culture was a mix of Roman, Greek, Christian, and Middle Eastern cultures Constantinople major trade center (Spices & Silk—East, Furs—Russia) Church of Hagia Sophia, icons, mosaics spread Byzantine influence

5 Justinian powerful emperor with strong central govt and single set of laws --used taxes to support a large standing army and conquer much of old empire --required all people to belong to Eastern Orthodox church Justinian’s Code --comprehensive legal code using all Roman and religious laws --basis for European law codes in the future

6 Decline of Byzantine Empire
Continuous Battles with Slavs, Persians and Muslims leads to loss of outer territory 1071 Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantine Army, empire begins to be attacked on all sides In 1453 Constantinople conquered by Ottoman Turks

7 Influence on Russia Contact with Russia begins due to trade with Constantinople Russians adopt Byzantine culture such as Orthodox Christianity (many in eastern Europe convert to Christianity),alphabet, products, and architecture

8 Byzantine Legacy Preservation of Ancient Cultures—saved heritage of classical civilization (Greek philosophy & science, Roman engineering, ancient texts) Code of Justinian—consolidate roman laws into one code, guide for later western legal systems

9 Islam Unit 5 Pre-AP World History

10 Rise of Islam Due to war in the area, trade is rerouted to different land and sea routes Cities rise up to meet new routes, one of these was Mecca or Makkah Mecca becomes the starting point of a new religion Islam (submission to the will of god)

11 Mohammed: The Prophet of Islam
Islam is founded by Muhammed * has a vision the Angel Gabriel commands him to convert the Arab tribes to believe in one God (Allah) Muhammed flees to city of Medina (marks the beginning of Muslim calendar), raises an army to retake Mecca and wage holy war or jihad Two years after victory he dies, by this time most tribes in Arabia had converted to Islam

12 The Quran (Koran) The Holy Book of Islam, believe that it is the words that God revealed to Mohammed Has 114 chapters that cover forms of worship, conduct, treatment of women Fundamental doctrine:”There is no God but Allah, and Muhammed is his prophet

13 The Five Pillars of Islam
Muslims worship god directly (no clergy) Five Pillars of Islam (basic religious duties that all Muslims must fulfill to strengthen faith) --Confession of Faith (No God but Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet) --Prayer (must face east toward Mecca and pray 5 times a day) --Charity (give money to the poor & mosque) --Fasting (Ramadan—no food or drink during daylight) --Pilgrimage (must make religious trip to Mecca)

14 Islam spreads Islam unites Arab tribes with religion and new language (Arabic) Begin “holy war” vs non-believers take over territory from Indus valley to Europe Halted at Battle of Tours in Spain

15 The Caliphates Caliphs—Muslim leader who succeeds Muhammed
Division of Islam Most Muslims (Sunnis) follow Umayyad Caliph, a small group (Shiites) only agree to follow descendants of Mohammed

16 The Caliphates Umayyad Caliph—expansion through war
Abbasid Caliph—expansion through trade As Islam expands caliphs enslave or convert people to Islam --Eventually all people are treated equally, Jews and Christians are permitted to self-govern themselves but had to pay tax

17 Golden age of Muslim Culture
Arabs absorbed culture of Rome, Greece, Persians, Jews & Byzantines Empire became large trading area for goods from Asia, Africa, and Europe Arabic becomes the common language of the empire Seljuk Turks and Crusades lead to decline of Empire

18 Arab Cultural Achievements
Math—Arab scholars develop Arabic numerals & advance geometry & algebra Arts & Crafts—forbid images of god or people, focused on design and creation of textiles, rugs and leather Medicine—detailed study of anatomy, diagnosis of several diseases Architecture—built palaces and mosques

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