Presentation on theme: "The African Nations. I.Africa A. Location 1. East of North and South America, south of Europe 2. Surrounded by the Indian and Atlantic Oceans 3. 2 nd."— Presentation transcript:
I.Africa A. Location 1. East of North and South America, south of Europe 2. Surrounded by the Indian and Atlantic Oceans 3. 2 nd largest continent in the world a. divided into 5 sections: North, South, Central, East and West B. Landforms 1. Atlas Mts. Africa’s longest range located in North Africa a. separate the Sahara from the Mediterranean Sea
4. Savanna- short grassy plain 5. Rainforest-dense forest with large amounts of rainfall 6. Waterways a. Nile River- longest river in the world i. flows North b. Congo River- flows through the rainforest in Central Africa c. Niger River- provides water for farmers d. Zambezi River- used for hydroelectric power i. Victoria Falls- where the Zambezi River empties into the Indian Ocean 7. Islands- Madagascar. Canary Cape Verde 8. Valleys- Great Rift Valley
C.Natural Resources 1. Cacao trees- used to make chocolate 2. subsistence farming- growing crops to support your family 3. cash crops- growing crops to sell 4. minerals- oil, petroleum, gold, diamonds
D.Early People 1. earliest people were hunter-gatherers a. gathered fruits and nuts, hunted for food and clothing b. Made tools out of stone and bone 2. domesticated plants and animals a. planted certain crops, raised certain animals b. did not travel c. became civilized i. people with governments, social classes art and writing ii. Bantu Language- people who spoke this language migrated (moved) all over Africa. Eventually developed into different ethnic groups.
E.North Africa 1. Egypt (Ancient) a. Pharaohs ruled Egypt i. Pyramids were their burial tombs 1. Great Pyramids- located in Giza 2. Sphinx- guardians of the city ii. Mummy- body treated for burial iii. Hieroglyphics- ancient Egyptian writing became extinct after the Christians took over Egypt 1. Rosetta Stone helped crack the code of the ancient hieroglyphics
King Tut’s Sarcophagus His mummified skull and replication of what he looked like when he ruled
2.Modern Egypt a. Religion- Islamic or Muslim b. Quran- holy book, main source of their law 1. based on the deeds & words of Muhammad 2. stresses the importance of honor honesty and giving to others 3. says men and women are equal in the eyes of God c. mosque- Muslim place of worship
F.West Africa 1. Nigeria a. multiethnic- variety of ethnic groups and cultures who speak a variety of different languages b. More people live in Nigeria than in any other country in Africa c. once a British colony but gained its independence in 1980
G. East Africa 1. Ethiopia a. Only African country besides Egypt to have a written history b. Was the center of trade for Eastern Africa i. Severe drought caused poverty throughout the land (1977-1979; 1984-1986) ii. USA and England held concerts, (Live Aide) to help people in Ethiopia
H. Central Africa 1. Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) a. one of the world’s main sources of copper b. 4 major regions i. Congo Rainforest- dense forest ii. Northern Uplands- covered in grasslands iii. Eastern Highlands- grasslands and forests iv. Southern Uplands- flat plains c. 2/3 of the people farm, mining produces the country’s wealth. d. military leader- Mobuto (until 1997) 1. authoritarian government -single leader or Small group all the power. 2. nationalized industry- put under government Control.
I Southern Africa 1. South Africa a. lies at the Southern most tip of Africa b. one of the wealthiest African Countries c. cultural differences i. black South Africans arrived 1500 years ago ii. White South Africans arrived about 400 years ago, settled in Cape Town iii. Considered themselves superior called themselves Afrikaners, spoke Afrikaans language d. apartheid- separateness, people were separated according to race
i. Apartheid made discrimination legal ii. Countries around the world fought against apartheid stopped trading with South Africa banned Athletes from the Olympics iii. 1990 William de Klerk passed a law banning apartheid iv.1994 first elections held in which all people, regardless of race. Were able to vote. **Nelson Mandela – Black South African who had been in jail for over 20 yrs. won the election **still divided because of race…government working on this