Presentation on theme: "Cities. What you need to know 1.How do people live in cities? 2.What are the problems of living in cities? 3.How are MEDC and LEDC cities different? 4.Why."— Presentation transcript:
What you need to know 1.How do people live in cities? 2.What are the problems of living in cities? 3.How are MEDC and LEDC cities different? 4.Why do cities change size? 5.How can planning improve cities?
How do people live in cities? Cities have functional zones Central Business District (high street) Inner city (corner shop) Suburbs (supermarket) Commuter belt (out of town shopping) Quality of life Economic, Social, Environmental Indicators measure quality of life (unemployment, house value, crime rates)
What are the problems of living in cities? MEDC Traffic congestion (charges) Pollution Industrial decline in cities has created ‘blackspots’ of wasteland, unemployment, crime and poverty. City shops close as out of town centres attract shoppers away with easy parking, security and a wide range of shops. LEDC Competition for land causes the rich to live near the CBD – the rich face problems of security. The poor live in shanty towns on the outskirts. Shanty towns are built by migrants moving from the countryside in search of work. At first they are very haphazard. Over time they are improved and get some amenities such as electricity and sanitation.
How are MEDC and LEDC cities different? CBD Inner city Suburbs Commuter belt CBD Industry Poor housing Shanty Town MEDC LEDC Causes of urbanisation in MEDCS Industrial revolution Housing built near factories (inner city) Transport and wealth led to building of suburbs & commuter belt Gentrification regenerating inner cities Causes of urbanisation in LEDCS Rural – urban migration Infrastructure attracts more people Population growth higher due to health care Shanty towns and extreme poverty next to small areas of extreme wealth
MEDC Counter urbanisation The movement out of cities to the suburbs Why? Better transport Information technology New business parks People want to escape city problems People move to find cheaper housing What are London’s boundaries?
LEDC city growth Overcrowding means the poor often live in very poor conditions Rapid migration from the countryside makes urban planning very difficult Government money is short to remedy the problems LEDCs can suffer from high levels of debt and corruption which hinder development
Planning improves MEDC cities 1.Greenbelt (stopping urban sprawl) No building in areas around major UK cities (1940s). New Towns built elsewhere (Milton Keynes). 2.Rural-Urban fringe for leisure Quality of life in cities can be improved by planned leisure facilities on the edge. Golf clubs, National Parks i.e.: New Forest 3.Reclaim land to relieve pressure Osaka, Japan (10,000 people per m2) Made new land in sea to build houses 4.Redevelopment / Regeneration Pockets of urban poverty can be regenerated by new planning attracting jobs and newcomers e.g.: London Docklands
Planning improves LEDC cities 1.Self-Help Schemes (Sao Paulo, Brazil) Government supplies basic services and building materials Locals build own houses using the basic services Builds community spirit and reduces problems caused by poor sanitation 2.Community services Zabbaleen Refuse Collectors, Cairo, Egypt Zabbaleen people licensed official refuse collectors Provides work, cleans shanties, rubbish is recycled (sustainable and more employment in industry)
Redevelopment scheme Along the River Thames Southwark to North Woolwich North Woolwich Southwark
Why is it necessary to regenerate the area? Decrease in port functions and industry Ships moved to the deeper water ports such as Tilbury Increase in counter urbanisation (people move out of towns and cities to rural areas.) between 1971-81. There was a 14.9% decline in population in the London Docklands.
Environmental impacts Environment: £72 million spent on improving the environment (parks and open space) by planting trees and creating wildlife reserves e.g. bird sanctuary in East India docks wildlife reserve in Surrey Quays.
Social Social: £8 million spent on social infrastructure e.g. new sports centres. Owner occupied 5% of homes in 1981, 44% in 1996 suggests influx of wealthy population ‘yuppies’ creating social divides locals not happy as their housing needs get met only 5700 local authority homes improved.
Employment: 1981= 27,244 people of docklands employed 1996 = 69,454 Although 58% of these people lived locally not many of these jobs were for the original population. The L.D.D.C spent £1000’s on training locals in business skills required by these large modern companies Enterprise zone e.g. incentives free rent etc. Also transport lines put in. An example is the jubilee line (extension of the underground. Economic
Almost nothing has happened for us, the local people. We were told that there would be new homes and jobs, but not for us. Less than 1,000 new council homes have been built - but there are over 25,000 new private flats and houses. Most of the jobs are for skilled people working for big companies - other jobs are low paid, working in restaurants or shops. Our needs should have been considered more. But today these multi-million pound schemes are less popular - why should this be? Ann Seacombe, a resident from the Isle of Dogs commented: Local view
James Wilkinson, a representative from the London Docklands Development Corporation asserted: There may have been a few problems because of the recession in the early 1990's, but the development has been a success. Derelict areas have been transformed with new developments. Many newspaper companies have moved out from crowded parts of Central London. New housing and jobs have been created. Transport links have been greatly improved with the new City Airport, Docklands Light Railway and new roads. LDDC view