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Gender Differences Sports.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender Differences Sports."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender Differences Sports

2 What sports are associated with women? Men?
Do you think boys should play on the same team as boys?

3 What is Title IX Legislation?
“No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.”

4 History of Title IX Although the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was written in order to end discrimination based on religion, race, color, or national origin, the act also energized the women’s rights movement, which had somewhat slowed after women’s suffrage in the 1920s. While Title IX is best known for its impact on high school and college athletics, the original statute made no explicit mention of sports.

5 The legislation covers all educational activities, and complaints under Title IX alleging sex discrimination in fields such as science or math education, or in other aspects of academic life such as access to health care and dormitory facilities, are not unheard of. It also applies to non-sport activities such as school band and clubs; however, social fraternities and sororities, sex-specific youth clubs such as Girl Scouts and Boy Scouts, and Girls State and Boys State are specifically exempt from Title IX requirements.

6 Title IX applies to an entire school or institution if any part of that school receives federal funds; hence, athletic programs are subject to Title IX, even though there is very little direct federal funding of school sports.

7 The regulations implementing Title IX require all universities receiving federal funds to perform self-evaluations of whether they offer equal opportunities based on sex and to provide written assurances to the Dept. of Education that the institution is in compliance for the period that the federally funded equipment or facilities remain in use. With respect to athletic programs, the Dept. of Education evaluates the following factors in determining whether equal treatment exists

8 Whether the selection of sports and levels of competition effectively accommodate the interests and abilities of members of both sexes; The provision of equipment and supplies; Scheduling of games and practice time; Travel and per diem allowance; Opportunity to receive coaching and academic tutoring on mathematics only; Assignment and compensation of coaches and tutors; Provision of locker rooms, practice and competitive facilities; Provision of medical and training facilities and services; Provision of housing and dining facilities and services; Publicity

9 Timeline of Events In 2012, we celebrate 40 years of Title IX.
Title IX from its inception in 1972 to the present June 23, 1972 Title IX of the Education Amendments is enacted by Congress and is signed into law by Richard Nixon. The sponsors of Title IX are Birch Bayh (Senate) and Edith Green (House of Representatives). Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in any educational program or activity receiving any type of federal financial aid. May 27, President Ford signs the Title IX athletics regulations and submits them for congressional review (pursuant to Section 431(d)(1) of the General Education Provisions Act). Title IX federal regulations are issued in the area of athletics. High schools and colleges are given three years, and elementary schools one year, to comply. February 17, NCAA challenges the legality of Title IX

10 October 1, All institutions of higher education must make available, to all who inquire, specific information on their intercollegiate athletics department, as required by the Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act. February The National Wrestling Coaches Association, College Gymnastics Association, and the U.S. Track Coaches Association, along with several other groups representing male athletes and alumni of wrestling programs at Bucknell, Marquette, and Yale, filed suit alleging that Title IX regulations and policies are unconstitutional. March 17, The Department of Education issued a policy guidance (“the Additional Clarification”) that significantly weakens Title IX. Schools can now simply send out an survey to their female students, asking them what additional sports they might have the interest and ability in playing. And if the survey responses do not show enough interest or ability, they do not have to add any sports – and are presumed in compliance with Title IX.

11 April 20, The Department of Education issued a policy guidance which rescinded the aforementioned “Additional Clarification” and all related documents including the recommended survey. April 4, The Department of Education issued a policy guidance which made clear that Title IX’s protections against sexual harassment and sexual violence apply to all students, including athletes. It addresses athletics departments in particular when it requires schools to use the same procedures that apply to all students to resolve sexual violence complaints involving student athletes.

12 To me, one of the reasons we were so successful was that we respected and cared about the game and felt the same way about each other. My teammates always understood there was a greater purpose. That the opportunity to play was extremely special, and let's try to make sure as many young girls have that opportunity.“ —Mia Hamm, soccer champion

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