AN OVERVIEW OF THEORIES HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=Y4FLF6XHJUC&LI ST=PLEXDDJSDV_E07DZKGTWXL6SS_IKIULCUZ
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Theories of motivation focus either on internal or external influences on our behavior. Biological Theories Drive-reduction theory Instinct theory Arousal theory – Yerkes-Dodson Law Behavioral Theory Incentive Theory Humanistic Theory Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Need: a condition in which we require something we don’t have Biological: water, food, sleep Psychological: self-esteem, achievement, social approval NEEDS give rise to DRIVES DRIVES: forces that motivate us to act NEEDS & DRIVES MOTIVATION biological need for food hunger = drive
External influences Internal influences Theories of motivation focus on either INTERNAL or EXTERNAL influences on behavior genetics Self- actualization incentives Cultural expectations
BIOLOGICAL Instinct Theory Drive-reduction Arousal Theory
DRIVE-REDUCTION THEORY Our behavior is motivated by needs Needs can by biological & psychological Needs give rise to drives: forces that motivate us to act We experience a drive based on a need unpleasant tension & we learn to do what we need to reduce that tension.
DRIVE – REDUCTION THEORY Our bodies seek homeostasis – an balanced internal state (reduced tension caused by needs) Examples: Sweating -An increase in body temperature causes physiological response Eating -Hunger drive causes you to get a snack. Applies to many biological drives but others??
INSTINCT THEORY instinct: an unlearned, inherited fixed pattern of behavior theory proposed much of human behavior is controlled by a variety of instincts Nesting in birds Crying & sucking reflex in babies Dogs shaking off Sea turtles to sea after hatching
INSTINCT THEORY APPLIED & SHORTCOMINGS Lorenz and Imprinting rapid learning that occurs during a brief period usually right after birth or hatching Form of attachment – long lasting Konrad Lorenz (ethologist) studied imprinting and geese 1935 Famous study – showed young geese could be “imprinted” on anything during 1 st few days of life Problems with Instinct Theory Doesn’t explain behavior -ex. human aggressive behavior is caused by the instinct aggression * Most behavior “caused” by instincts is actually learned & shaped by experience. (ex. Aggression) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqZmW7uIPW4&feature=related
HUMANISTS : MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS We are motivated to be our best. But need to meet our lower needs first.
Your Task: In pairs, review the 5 theories from your homework. Write a one sentence concise summary of each. How would each theory explain your drive to SLEEP? SHARE-PAIR
THE AROUSAL THEORY Yerkes Dodson Law Research indicates that animals & people perform best when their nervous system is at an optimum level of arousal We all have a different need for excitement or arousal, and we are motivated by activities that help us achieve this level. The “Goldilocks” principle of motivation – too sleepy OR too nervous perform poorly… Motivated to increase or decrease levels of arousal
WHAT MOTIVATES YOU? Your Task: http://teachinghighschoolpsychology.blogspot.co m/2010/03/motivation-video.html http://teachinghighschoolpsychology.blogspot.co m/2010/03/motivation-video.html Create a personal motivational poster and a wordle that describes what motivates you.
INTRINSIC & EXTRINSIC MOTIVATORS Intrinsic motivators: desire to perform well for your own sake, for fun, or because it is interesting to YOU Extrinsic motivators: desire to perform because of a promised reward or threat of punishment Research of Deci & Ryan proposed if people extrinsic rewards for behavior people find satisfying less creative & productive “motivational crowding out”
Deci & Ryan’s research had flaws…if rewarding people extrinsically for doing something they are already motivated to do decreases their productivity...why should anyone receive pay raises, promotions, or bonuses? Self-determination theory: you can have a combination of both intrinsic & extrinsic motivators at work/school BUT the most satisfying are those that allow you to feel most in control of your behavior THE MORE AUTONOMY YOU FEEL...THE MORE SELF-DIRECTED YOU ARE THE MORE SATISFIED YOU’LL BE If you feel events are controlled by factors outside your self (external)…less satisfied.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QX_oy9614HQ One way to develop intrinsic motivation: Develop self-control
Another way to develop intrinsic motivation: focus on decision making. Strategies Including: Self-affirmation exercises Focusing on better times “reflection cards” Recognize what is and what is not in your control -Dr. Roy Baumeister
INCENTIVE THEORY Any stimulus you think has either a positive or negative outcome for you will be an incentive Value of incentives change over time Good marketing strategies cause you to want something you neither have nor thought you needed. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6XAPnuFjJc Excerpt describing a point in Daniel Pink’s book Drive
Think about it: Who controls your fate? Internality, Chance, and Powerful Others Scale Your Task: Record the results from the self-test on Internality & Chance. -Do you agree with results? Why or why not? -What’s your “take away” from this test? -How might it relate to your own motivation?