Presentation on theme: "Motivation and Emotion. Objective By the end of this unit we will all be able to give reasons for the physiological basis of motivation, reduction theory,"— Presentation transcript:
Objective By the end of this unit we will all be able to give reasons for the physiological basis of motivation, reduction theory, summarize the study of social motives, explain Maslow’s hierarchy, give examples of physiological and cognitive theories of emotion by doing class notes, class discussion, and personal reflections.
Biological Motives Body’s nervous system is created in such a way that any dramatic variations to salt, sugar, water, oxygen, etc. can cause change in behavior. Body works at finding the balance=homeostasis.
Physiology of Motivation Hunger motivates you to find food. What signals you to eat are lateral hypothalamus (LH). Without LH you will die due to starvation b/c there is no signal to eat. Ventromedial hypothalamus is what slows you down from eating-if this is removed you will eat everything in sight.
Physiology of Motivation If VMH is destroyed, obesity can occur.
Drive Reduction Theory Emerged from Clark Hall. When an organism is deprived from something it needs, it becomes aggravated. Essentially, physiological needs drive an organism to act it either random or habitual ways until its needs are met.
Drive Reduction Theory In humans, DRT is different. Not only do we need basic biological needs but we also tend to strive for excellence, need affection or amusement-all of which are an extension of our basic needs. Infants become attached to mothers b/c mothers are able to feed them and give them affection.
Drive Reduction Theory Some psychologist argue with Hull stating that there cannot be a general theory as to what drives people. It can vary from person to person.
Achievement Motives McClelland studied achievement in order to understand social motives. TAT-Thematic Apperception Test No right or wrong answers Subjects were told to make up stories to pictures Answers were believed to reflect that person’s unconscious desires
Achievement Motives If someone were hungry when taking the test, they would make up stories that had food in it. Then he gave a group of subjects a test that they would do poorly on. They were allowed to redo it. Subjects became frustrated. He then administered the TAT.
Findings of Achievement Most cases were of men. Men tend to be very successful when trying to achieve. They tend to be able to look at things differently and achieve greater success. Women fear success. Not enough confidence.
Emotion Emotions are the feelings associated with behavior. Motive and emotion are intertwined. Our feelings energize us and make us pursue goals Anticipated emotions are the incentive for our actions
Innate v. Learned Innate Behavior-part of our biological inheritance P. 146 facial expression chart We can learn behavioral signals. We learn to express and experience emotions in the company of other people and we learn that emotions can vary.
Smiles = happy, pleased Parents response to children’s outburst can be angry or sympathetic-baby crying.
Physiological Theories William James- “Principles of Psychology” Summarized human behavior, motivations, and feelings Believed that emotions are the perception of certain internal bodily changes. Went against what most believed which was bodily changes cause emotions. AKA James-Lange theory
Cannon-Bard Theory Certain experiences activate the thalamus, and the thalamus sends messages to the cortex, which sends messages to the body organs. Emotion means simultaneous burst of activity in the brain and the gut reactions
Cognitive Theories Believe that bodily changes and thinking work together to produce emotions Schachter-Singer experiment P.151 Result: Internal components of emotion affect a person differently, depending on his or her interpretation or perception of the social situation.
Arnold’s Theory-emotions can be put into stages 1-perceive a person, place, thing 2-appraisal-will whatever is happening hurt, help or have no affect on you 3-bodily change 4-emotion 5-action