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Chapter 23 Faraday’s Law and Induction

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Michael Faraday 1791 – 1867 Great experimental physicist Contributions to early electricity include Invention of motor, generator, and transformer Electromagnetic induction Laws of electrolysis

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Induction An induced current is produced by a changing magnetic field There is an induced emf associated with the induced current A current can be produced without a battery present in the circuit Faraday’s Law of Induction describes the induced emf

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EMF Produced by a Changing Magnetic Field, 1 A loop of wire is connected to a sensitive ammeter When a magnet is moved toward the loop, the ammeter deflects The deflection indicates a current induced in the wire

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EMF Produced by a Changing Magnetic Field, 2 When the magnet is held stationary, there is no deflection of the ammeter Therefore, there is no induced current Even though the magnet is inside the loop

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EMF Produced by a Changing Magnetic Field, 3 The magnet is moved away from the loop The ammeter deflects in the opposite direction

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EMF Produced by a Changing Magnetic Field, Summary The ammeter deflects when the magnet is moving toward or away from the loop The ammeter also deflects when the loop is moved toward or away from the magnet An electric current is set up in the coil as long as relative motion occurs between the magnet and the coil This is the induced current that is produced by an induced emf

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Faraday’s Experiment – Set Up A primary coil is connected to a switch and a battery The wire is wrapped around an iron ring A secondary coil is also wrapped around the iron ring There is no battery present in the secondary coil The secondary coil is not electrically connected to the primary coil

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Faraday’s Experiment – Findings At the instant the switch is closed, the galvanometer (ammeter) needle deflects in one direction and then returns to zero When the switch is opened, the galvanometer needle deflects in the opposite direction and then returns to zero The galvanometer reads zero when there is a steady current or when there is no current in the primary circuit

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Faraday’s Experiment – Conclusions An electric current can be produced by a time- varying magnetic field This would be the current in the secondary circuit of this experimental set-up The induced current exists only for a short time while the magnetic field is changing This is generally expressed as: an induced emf is produced in the secondary circuit by the changing magnetic field The actual existence of the magnetic field is not sufficient to produce the induced emf, the field must be changing

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Magnetic Flux To express Faraday’s finding mathematically, the magnetic flux is used The flux depends on the magnetic field and the area:

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Flux and Induced emf An emf is induced in a circuit when the magnetic flux through the surface bounded by the circuit changes with time This summarizes Faraday’s experimental results

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Faraday’s Law – Statements Faraday’s Law of Induction states that the emf induced in a circuit is equal to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit Mathematically,

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Faraday’s Law – Statements, cont If the circuit consists of N identical and concentric loops, and if the field lines pass through all loops, the induced emf becomes The loops are in series, so the emfs in the individual loops add to give the total emf

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Faraday’s Law – Example Assume a loop enclosing an area A lies in a uniform magnetic field The magnetic flux through the loop is B = B A cos The induced emf is

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Ways of Inducing an emf The magnitude of the field can change with time The area enclosed by the loop can change with time The angle between the field and the normal to the loop can change with time Any combination of the above can occur

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Applications of Faraday’s Law – Pickup Coil The pickup coil of an electric guitar uses Faraday’s Law The coil is placed near the vibrating string and causes a portion of the string to become magnetized When the string vibrates at the some frequency, the magnetized segment produces a changing flux through the coil The induced emf is fed to an amplifier

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Motional emf A motional emf is one induced in a conductor moving through a magnetic field The electrons in the conductor experience a force that is directed along l

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Motional emf, cont Under the influence of the force, the electrons move to the lower end of the conductor and accumulate there As a result of the charge separation, an electric field is produced inside the conductor The charges accumulate at both ends of the conductor until they are in equilibrium with regard to the electric and magnetic forces

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Motional emf, final For equilibrium, q E = q v B or E = v B A potential difference is maintained between the ends of the conductor as long as the conductor continues to move through the uniform magnetic field If the direction of the motion is reversed, the polarity of the potential difference is also reversed

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Sliding Conducting Bar A bar moving through a uniform field and the equivalent circuit diagram Assume the bar has zero resistance The work done by the applied force appears as internal energy in the resistor R

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Sliding Conducting Bar, cont The induced emf is Since the resistance in the circuit is R, the current is

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Sliding Conducting Bar, Energy Considerations The applied force does work on the conducting bar This moves the charges through a magnetic field The change in energy of the system during some time interval must be equal to the transfer of energy into the system by work The power input is equal to the rate at which energy is delivered to the resistor

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AC Generators Electric generators take in energy by work and transfer it out by electrical transmission The AC generator consists of a loop of wire rotated by some external means in a magnetic field

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Induced emf In an AC Generator The induced emf in the loops is This is sinusoidal, with max = N A B

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Lenz’ Law Faraday’s Law indicates the induced emf and the change in flux have opposite algebraic signs This has a physical interpretation that has come to be known as Lenz’ Law It was developed by a German physicist, Heinrich Lenz

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Lenz’ Law, cont Lenz’ Law states the polarity of the induced emf in a loop is such that it produces a current whose magnetic field opposes the change in magnetic flux through the loop The induced current tends to keep the original magnetic flux through the circuit from changing

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Lenz’ Law – Example 1 When the magnet is moved toward the stationary loop, a current is induced as shown in a This induced current produces its own magnetic field that is directed as shown in b to counteract the increasing external flux

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Lenz’ Law – Example 2 When the magnet is moved away the stationary loop, a current is induced as shown in c This induced current produces its own magnetic field that is directed as shown in d to counteract the decreasing external flux

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Induced emf and Electric Fields An electric field is created in the conductor as a result of the changing magnetic flux Even in the absence of a conducting loop, a changing magnetic field will generate an electric field in empty space This induced electric field has different properties than a field produced by stationary charges

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Induced emf and Electric Fields, cont The emf for any closed path can be expressed as the line integral of over the path Faraday’s Law can be written in a general form

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Induced emf and Electric Fields, final The induced electric field is a nonconservative field that is generated by a changing magnetic field The field cannot be an electrostatic field because if the field were electrostatic, and hence conservative, the line integral would be zero and it isn’t

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Self-Induction When the switch is closed, the current does not immediately reach its maximum value Faraday’s Law can be used to describe the effect

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Self-Induction, 2 As the current increases with time, the magnetic flux through the circuit loop due to this current also increases with time The corresponding flux due to this current also increases This increasing flux creates an induced emf in the circuit

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Self-Inductance, 3 The direction of the induced emf is such that it would cause an induced current in the loop which would establish a magnetic field opposing the change in the original magnetic field The direction of the induced emf is opposite the direction of the emf of the battery Sometimes called a back emf This results in a gradual increase in the current to its final equilibrium value

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Self-Induction, 4 This effect is called self-inductance Because the changing flux through the circuit and the resultant induced emf arise from the circuit itself The emf L is called a self-induced emf

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Self-Inductance, Equations An induced emf is always proportional to the time rate of change of the current L is a constant of proportionality called the inductance of the coil It depends on the geometry of the coil and other physical characteristics

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Inductance of a Coil A closely spaced coil of N turns carrying current I has an inductance of The inductance is a measure of the opposition to a change in current Compared to resistance which was opposition to the current

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Inductance Units The SI unit of inductance is a Henry (H) Named for Joseph Henry

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Joseph Henry 1797 – 1878 Improved the design of the electromagnet Constructed one of the first motors Discovered the phenomena of self- inductance

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Inductance of a Solenoid Assume a uniformly wound solenoid having N turns and length l Assume l is much greater than the radius of the solenoid The interior magnetic field is

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Inductance of a Solenoid, cont The magnetic flux through each turn is Therefore, the inductance is This shows that L depends on the geometry of the object

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RL Circuit, Introduction A circuit element that has a large self- inductance is called an inductor The circuit symbol is We assume the self-inductance of the rest of the circuit is negligible compared to the inductor However, even without a coil, a circuit will have some self-inductance

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RL Circuit, Analysis An RL circuit contains an inductor and a resistor When the switch is closed (at time t=0), the current begins to increase At the same time, a back emf is induced in the inductor that opposes the original increasing current

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RL Circuit, Analysis, cont Applying Kirchhoff’s Loop Rule to the previous circuit gives Looking at the current, we find

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RL Circuit, Analysis, Final The inductor affects the current exponentially The current does not instantly increase to its final equilibrium value If there is no inductor, the exponential term goes to zero and the current would instantaneously reach its maximum value as expected

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RL Circuit, Time Constant The expression for the current can also be expressed in terms of the time constant, , of the circuit where = L / R Physically, is the time required for the current to reach 63.2% of its maximum value

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RL Circuit, Current-Time Graph, 1 The equilibrium value of the current is /R and is reached as t approaches infinity The current initially increases very rapidly The current then gradually approaches the equilibrium value

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RL Circuit, Current-Time Graph, 2 The time rate of change of the current is a maximum at t = 0 It falls off exponentially as t approaches infinity In general,

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Energy in a Magnetic Field In a circuit with an inductor, the battery must supply more energy than in a circuit without an inductor Part of the energy supplied by the battery appears as internal energy in the resistor The remaining energy is stored in the magnetic field of the inductor

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Energy in a Magnetic Field, cont Looking at this energy (in terms of rate) I is the rate at which energy is being supplied by the battery I 2 R is the rate at which the energy is being delivered to the resistor Therefore, LI dI/dt must be the rate at which the energy is being delivered to the inductor

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Energy in a Magnetic Field, final Let U denote the energy stored in the inductor at any time The rate at which the energy is stored is To find the total energy, integrate and U B = ½ L I 2

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Energy Density of a Magnetic Field Given U = ½ L I 2, Since Al is the volume of the solenoid, the magnetic energy density, u B is This applies to any region in which a magnetic field exists not just the solenoid

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Inductance Example – Coaxial Cable Calculate L and energy for the cable The total flux is Therefore, L is The total energy is

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Magnetic Levitation – Repulsive Model A second major model for magnetic levitation is the EDS (electrodynamic system) model The system uses superconducting magnets This results in improved energy effieciency

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Magnetic Levitation – Repulsive Model, 2 The vehicle carries a magnet As the magnet passes over a metal plate that runs along the center of the track, currents are induced in the plate The result is a repulsive force This force tends to lift the vehicle There is a large amount of metal required Makes it very expensive

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Japan’s Maglev Vehicle The current is induced by magnets passing by coils located on the side of the railway chamber

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EDS Advantages Includes a natural stabilizing feature If the vehicle drops, the repulsion becomes stronger, pushing the vehicle back up If the vehicle rises, the force decreases and it drops back down Larger separation than EMS About 10 cm compared to 10 mm

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EDS Disadvantages Levitation only exists while the train is in motion Depends on a change in the magnetic flux Must include landing wheels for stopping and starting The induced currents produce a drag force as well as a lift force High speeds minimize the drag Significant drag at low speeds must be overcome every time the vehicle starts up

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