Presentation on theme: "Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies Stephen W. Pacala and Robert Socolow Science Vol. 305."— Presentation transcript:
Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies Stephen W. Pacala and Robert Socolow Science Vol. 305 968-972 August 13, 2004
20542004 14 At Least Tripling CO 2 7 Billion of Tons of Carbon Emitted per Year 1954 0 Stabilization Triangle Current path Flat path Historical emissions Avoid Doubling CO 2 What does it mean to solve the carbon and climate problem over the next 50 years?
Stabilization Triangle Current path Flat path 1 “wedge” 7 wedges are needed to build the stabilization triangle 1 wedge avoids 1 billion tons of carbon emissions per year by 2054
Photos courtesy of Ford, WMATA, Washington State Ridesharing Organization Efficiency in transport Effort needed for 1 wedge: 2 billion gasoline and diesel cars (10,000 miles/car-yr) at 60 mpg instead of 30 mpg 500 million cars now. Cost = negative to $2000 - $3000 per car (hybrid Prius). Fuel savings ~150 gallons per year = emissions savings of ~0.5 tC/yr =carbon cost > $2/gal !
Wind Electricity Effort needed for 1 wedge: Install 40,000 1 MW peak windmills each year - six times current rate of new installations (7GW/yr). New installation currently growing at 30%/yr. Requires 60 million hectares (7% of U.S.) but multiple use. Potential Pitfalls: NIMBY Changes in regional climate? Cost competitive.
Capture the Carbon in Fossil Fuels Separate the energy content from the carbon content Produce two C-free secondary energy carriers: electricity and H 2 Electricity
Effort needed for 1 wedge: CCS at 800 GW coal or 1600 GW natural gas, or equivalent H 2 plants. Power with CCS* *The carbon capture step of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Potential Pitfalls: Second step, carbon storage, founders.
Carbon storage Effort needed for 1 wedgee: 70 Sleipner equivalents (1 Natuna equivalent) installed every year and maintained until 2054 Five to ten times US natural gas injection and geologic storage. Potential Pitfalls: Public acceptance. Global and local CO 2 leakage Graphic courtesy of Statoil ASA Cost = 5¢/gal (BP Algeria).
Wedges #1 - #8 (out of 15) OptionEffort by 2054 for one wedge, relative to 14 GtC/year BAUComments, issues Energy Efficiency and Conservation Economy-wide carbon-intensity reduction (emissions/$GDP) Increase reduction by additional 0.15% per year (e.g., increase U.S. goal of reduction of 1.96% per year to 2.11% per year) Can be tuned by carbon policy 1. Efficient vehiclesIncrease fuel economy for 2 billion cars from 30 to 60 mpgCar size, power 2. Reduced use of vehiclesDecrease car travel for 2 billion 30-mpg cars from 10,000 to 5,000 miles per year Urban design, mass transit, telecommuting 3. Efficient buildingsCut carbon emissions by one-fourth in buildings and appliances projected for 2054 Weak incentives 4. Efficient baseload coal plantsProduce twice today’s coal power output at 60% instead of 40% efficiency (compared with 32% today) Advanced high-temperature materials Fuel shift5. Gas baseload power for coal baseload power Replace 1400 GW 50%-efficient coal plants with gas plants (4 times the current production of gas-based power) Competing demands for natural gas CO 2 Capture and Storage (CCS) 6. Capture CO 2 at baseload power plant Introduce CCS at 800 GW coal or 1600 GW natural gas (compared with 1060 GW coal in 1999) Technology already in use for H 2 production 7. Capture CO 2 at H 2 plantIntroduce CCS at plants producing 250 MtH 2 /year from coal or 500 MtH 2 /year from natural gas (compared with 40 MtH 2 /year today from all sources) H 2 safety, infrastructure 8. Capture CO 2 at coal-to- synfuels plant Introduce CCS at synfuels plants producing 30 million barrels per day from coal (200 times Sasol), if half of feedstock carbon is available for capture Increased CO 2 emissions, if synfuels are produced without CCS Geological storageCreate 3500 SleipnersDurable storage, successful permitting
Wedges #9 - #15 (out of 15) OptionEffort by 2054 for one wedge, relative to 14 GtC/year BAUComments, issues Nuclear Fission9. Nuclear power for coal powerAdd 700 GW (twice the current capacity)Nuclear proliferation, terrorism, waste Renewable Electricity and Fuels 10. Wind power for coal powerAdd 2 million 1-MW-peak windmills (50 times the current capacity) “occupying” 30x10 6 ha, on land or off shore Multiple uses of land because windmills are widely spaced 11. PV power for coal powerAdd 2000 GW-peak PV (700 times the current capacity) on 2x10 6 ha PV production cost 12. Wind H 2 in fuel-cell car for gasoline in hybrid car Add 4 million 1-MW-peak windmills (100 times the current capacity) H 2 safety, infrastructure 13. Biomass fuel for fossil fuelAdd 100 times the current Brazil or U.S. ethanol production, with the use of 250 x10 6 ha (1/6 of world cropland) Biodiversity, competing land use Forests and Agricultural Soils 14. Reduced deforestation, plus reforestation, afforestation and new plantations. Decrease tropical deforestation to zero instead of 0.5 GtC/year, and establish 300 Mha of new tree plantations (twice the current rate) Land demands of agriculture, benefits to biodiversity from reduced deforestation 15. Conservation tillageApply to all cropland (10 times the current usage)Reversibility, verification
CONCLUSION Humanity already possesses the fundamental scientific and technical know-how to solve the carbon and climate problem, at least over the professional lifetime of anyone who is reading these words.