Presentation on theme: "Presentation of a research project carried out for the Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network Research Co-ordinator: Jane Freedman."— Presentation transcript:
Presentation of a research project carried out for the Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network Research Co-ordinator: Jane Freedman
Objectives of the Study Mapping of different types of violence and analysis of scale Examination of sources of violence Analysis of factors increasing vulnerability at different stages of migration Identification of programmes in place to reduce violence/protect women and/or to provide redress Analysis of effectiveness of these programmes Highlighting gaps in knowledge and need for further data collection
Projected Recommendations To identify specific measures that may reduce migrant women’s insecurities and vulnerability to violence. To make recommendations concerning the implementation of these measures to policy-makers and NGOs active in this domain in the Euromed region. To identify specific measures that may be taken to provide redress to those migrant women who have been the victims of violence. To make recommendations on the implementation of such measures to policy-makers and NGOs in the Euromed region. To highlight the main gaps in knowledge on violence against migrant women, and to make recommendations regarding further data collection to remedy these gaps. To make recommendations for further research and action in the framework of the Barcelona programme and neighbourhood policy to ensure a better protection of migrant women in the Euromed region.
Definitions of Migrant Women For the purposes of this study, migration will be considered in an international or transnational context. In other words, the women to be studied will be those who have undertaken an international migration and are living in a country other than that of their nationality of origin. Labour migrants Students Women migrating for the purposes of family reunification Asylum seekers and refugees Undocumented migrants Women victims of trafficking
Gender Mainstreaming in the Research What is Gender? Gender comprises a socially constructed set of roles, responsibilities and identities for women and men Gendered roles, responsibilities and identities are constructed through social relations of power. Need to consider variations over time and space Gendered structures and relations are in a process of constant transformation
Exploring Gendered Violence What are the forms of violence experienced by migrant women, and how are these similar to or different from those of migrant men? What is the cause of the different types of violence experienced by women? How are these causes anchored in gendered relations of power? How do gender inequalities within different societies lead to vulnerability of women to violence? How do policies and measures put in place to combat violence against migrant women take into account issues of gender inequality? What impact do these policies have on gendered inequalities and forms of violence? How do policies which are in theory “gender neutral” in fact have discriminatory impacts on men and women? What new measures could be implemented to ensure better understanding of the gendered causes and consequences of violence against migrants?
Definition of Violence against Women The term “violence against women” means any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life. Accordingly, violence against women encompasses but is not limited to the following: a) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation; b) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution; c) Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, wherever it occurs. d) Acts of violence against women also include forced sterilization and forced abortion, coercive/forced use of contraceptives, female infanticide and prenatal sex selection. United Nations General Assembly. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, December 1993
Increased vulnerability for migrant women Changing gender relations in migration Less knowledge of women migrants Lack of legal status Economic dependency Particular insertion into the labour market eg domestic work No recognition of gender-related violence State reluctance to intervene in « private » sphere More vulnerable to trafficking
Immigration policies and legislation DomesticEmployment Police and state institutions Public attitudes and racism Trafficking
Some migrant women are especially vulnerable to deprivation, hardship, discrimination and abuse. They face discrimination both due to their status as migrants and due to their status as women. They have limited access to employment and generally earn less than men and native-born women. Legally, many migrant women are vulnerable if their residence is dependent upon a relationship with a citizen or “primary migrant”. Migrant women, particularly forced migrants, face real risks of physical and sexual abuse during travel and in the country of destination. In short, the rights of migrant women are violated frequently, drastically and all too often with impunity. United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) Consultative Meeting on “Migration and Mobility and how this movement affects Women” Malmö, Sweden, December 2003.
UNIFEM: « In a study over half of foreign domestic women workers interviewed reported that they were victims of verbal or physical abuse »
Research Plan 1st stage: Literature review, mapping of different forms of violence, interviews with key informants in Brussels. 2 nd stage: Interviews with national decision-makers, NGOs and with migrant women. Case studies in four countries: France, Italy, Morocco and Egypt 3rd stage: Analysis of empirical research, writing up report.
Review of policies and programmes on migrant women within the framework of Euromed Ministerial Conclusions Strengthening the role of women in society, Istanbul (2006) Algarve (2007) Programmes Euromed Migration II AENEAS and Migration and Asylum EIDHR
Ministerial Conclusions on Strengthening the Role of Women in Society 10c « Combat all forms of violence against women, guarantee women protection and redress in case of violation of their rights; protect the fundamental rights of women victims of all forms of violence, especially domestic violence, trafficking in human beings, harmful traditional practices and violence against migrant women »
11k « Develop a better knowledge and increase research of women in migration (causes, processes, enjoyment of their full human rights and impact on women in countries of origin and in the host countries) and mainstream a gender approach in studies and statistics related to migration. Increase protection and integration of migrant women and ensure the effective enjoyment of their human rights. » 11l « Raise awareness of migrant women on their rights and duties in the host country and improve their role as actors of development in the host country and the country of origin. »
12 d « Combat gender-based violence in all its manifestations, including through research, awareness raising campaigns involving men and boys, education, media campaigns, toll free and emergency numbers, institutional networks, exchange of experiences, views and good practices in the Euro-Mediterranean region »
Follow-up of Istanbul Conclusions Implementation monitored through questionnaires to all participating countries. High number of positive responses concerning migrant women but largely from EU partners. Follow up by Euromed Parliamentary Assembly? Migrant women do not seem to be high on the agenda of follow-up meetings or actions (need for awareness raising activities)
Ministerial Conclusions on Migration (Algarve 2007) Introductory remarks include recognition of the need to « respect and protect » the rights of migrants and human rights « in particular those of female migrants and children » Commitment to combat « discrimination, racism and xenophobia against migrants and their families »
Euromed Migration II First phase involves four high level working groups (decision makers from each country) 1. Legal migration 2. Combatting illegal migration 3. Migration and development (remittances) 4. Legal convergence None of these working groups will have a gender element. Gender will be included separately through a study on migrant women. The terms of reference for the study are not yet available, but it appears that the focus will be on labour market participation and remittances, and not on human rights.
Gender within the various funding programmes 1. AENEAS now Migration and Asylum No programmes specifically targeting migrant women within the Euromed region. JLS argue that the new programme will spend one fifth of budget on migrants’ rights and that this should include some projects which consider women.
2. EIDHR EIDHR will not fund migration related projects as a priority (as this is covered by Migration and Asylum programme) Projects protecting human rights of migrant women may enter into the sphere of EIDHR through priorities on: 1. Trafficking 2. FGM 3. Domestic violence
(Very) Provisional Conclusions Lack of data on migrant women No real awareness of problems of violence against migrant women Failure to undertake « gender mainstreaming » within Euromed programmes Need to remind decision makers (both within sphere of migration and of women’s rights) of the importance of considering migrant women.