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47th Navy Occupational Health & Preventive Medicine Conference (NEHC)

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1 47th Navy Occupational Health & Preventive Medicine Conference (NEHC)
US Navy Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Personnel (HERP) Ship Survey and Certification Process 17 March 2008 Presented by: Robert Needy E3 Assessment & Evaluation Branch (Q52) DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT "D" - Distribution authorized to DOD and DOD contractors only; administrative/operational use (January 2007). Other requests shall be referred to Commander Dahlgren Division, (Q50), Naval Surface Warfare Center, and Dahlgren Rd., Dahlgren, VA No secondary distribution authorized without prior approval of NSWCDD (Q50), Dahlgren, VA DESTRUCTION NOTICE - For classified documents, follow the procedures contained in DOD M, Industrial Security Manual, Section II-19 or DOD R, Information Security Program Regulation, Chapter IX (Chapter 17 of OPNAVINST H). For unclassified, limited documents, destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of document.

2 Discussion Topics HERP US Navy Safety Program
HERP Safety Standards & Instruction Status US Navy Certification Ship List My discussion topics include: - RF Hazards Cause & Effect - The Ship Survey & Certification Process - Bring your attention to some of the new developments/revisions within the Department of Defense, US Navy & the IEEE Standards Committee. - The finally discuss the current status of the fleet wrt personnel RF safety.

3 HERP Ship Safety Program
HERP - What is it ? Documentation – Policy & Standards Used As an introduction I want to first talk about the HERP Safety Program

4 HERP – Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Personnel
HERP – Cause & Effects HERP – Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Personnel Cause (source of hazard) – Too many RF emitters for too little real estate. Effects (resulting effects) – Body heat increases, and excessive current flow through body extremities. Cause Effects Non-Ionizing Radiation RF Radiation (Body Heating) (RF Emissions) RF Burn Excessive Body Currents - Induced - Contact (grasping)

5 Documentation Policy & Safety Guidance Used
Technical Warrant Holder: NAVSEA 05W43 (Mark Johnson) Policy/Guidance: DoDINST – Protection of DoD Personnel from Exposure to RF Radiation OPNAVINST D – Occupational Safety & Health (NAVOSH) Forces Afloat NAVSEA S9040-AA-GRP-010/SSCR – Ship System Certification Requirements NAVSEAINST – Integrated Topside Safety and Certification Program (Pointing, Firing, and RADHAZ Cutouts) OP 3565 Vol I – HERP/HERF Technical Guidance Handbook Baseline Standard: DoD & NAVOSH – Exposure Limits are derived from recommended limits established by American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/IEEE C95.1; which serve as a consensus standard of industry, scientific communities, government agencies and the public IEEE C95.1 – Standard for safety levels with respect to human exposure to RF fields 3 KHz to 300 GHz The documents listed in the second bullet provides overall DoD, and US Navy policy/guidance, requirements for establishing an RF safety program. The RF safety exposure limits used within the Dept of Defense, and US Navy were adopted from a commercial standard developed by ANSI/IEEE. The guidance contained in C95.1 cover the RF range of 3 KHz to 300 GHz Recently IEEE has successfully introduced a Standard for personnel safety levels that covers the 0 to 3 kHz spectrum - which I will talk about in more detail later in this brief. The DoD, and US Navy are in the process of adopting this standard as part of their baseline safety program. US Navy HERP Safety Programs Guided by DODINST

6 HERP – C95.1 Standard Characteristics
RF Exposure Limits Based Upon Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) “Time Derivative of Energy Absorbed in a Body Mass” SAR is a Thermal “Heating” Effect Currently C95.1 Sets SAR Threshold at 4 W/kg with a Safety Factor of (10) – 0.4 w/kg “Above 4 W/kg, There is an Increasing Chance of Adverse Biological Effects, But at or Below, There is No Established Evidence of Harm to Health” Based Upon a Two Tier Standard: Controlled Environments – Occupational Areas Uncontrolled Environments – Public Areas IEEE C95.1 Defines Exposure Limits in Terms: RF Radiated Fields – V/m, A/m, mW/cm2 Induced Body Currents – Feet/Foot (mA) – (3 KHz to 100 MHz) Contact Body Currents – Grasping Contact (mA) – (3 KHz to 100 MHz) A conservative standard based upon Biological Thermal Effects Some important characteristics of the IEEE C95.1 standard are listed here: > A time based thermal effect defined in terms of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). > An internationally accepted SAR threshold was established & a safety factor of 10 applied to the limits. > Time averaged exposures over a 6 min period > A two tier limit criteria was set to address occupational & public environments. The public environmental standard has an additional safety factor of 5 applied. > Exposure limits defined in field measurable terms.

7 HERP Safety Program Ship HERP Survey Process Instrumentation
Shipboard Measurements Control Measures Implementation NAVSEA Ship Certification Process Now I want to talk about the US Navy ship Survey & NAVSEA Certification process:

8 Ship HERP Mitigation Process
Guidelines/Instructions (IEEE C95.1 Baseline) DOD INST Develop Administrative Control Measures: Freq & Pwr Management Post Warning Signs Check Radar/SATCOM Cutouts Provide On-Site Training & Report Evaluate Workplace EME On-Site Instrumented Measurements The ship survey process is well established, and working process: A survey scheduled is established with the ship’s support. Field measurements are taken Control measures are developed based upon these measurements, & warning signs, PEL lines or other engineering controll measures are installed. A hazard awareness “out-breif” is conducted.

9 Instrumented Measurements
Measurement Data used to Develop HERP Control Measures On site fiels measurements are taken around potentially hazardous work areas. NAVSEA Dahlgren Division NSWC/Q52 is the Technical Agent for Shipboard HERP Mitigation

10 Survey Instrumentation
NARDA EM Survey Meter Model 8723D With Model 8723D Isotropic Probe HOLADAY Model HI-4422 Electric Field Probe Model HI-4416 Readout Meter MISSION RESEARCH Model MG-4501 Current Meters (Induced/Contact Body Current) Most of the survey equipment is commercially available measurement equipment. However, the Induced & contact current instruments were developed under a NAVSEA small business initiative effort. NAVSEA RF Voltmeter (RF-Burn)

11 Radiation Hazard Warning Signs used on Ships
Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Type 5 Posted warning signs & painted PEL lines provide awareness and instructions on how to avoid the hazard. When properly displayed Identify Hazards Inform Sailors how to avoid Hazards

12 Personnel Exposure Limit
Posted Warning Signs Personnel Exposure Limit (PEL) Warning Lines RF Burn Warning Sign Posted warning signs and painted PEL lines are shown here Warning Signs PEL Lines

13 RF Burn Issues The Use of a RF Insulating Link Installed on Cargo/Boat Cranes Mitigates Potential RF Burn Safety Issue discovered onboard USS SAN ANTONIO (LPD 17) 2-2 HF Antenna LPD 17 Insulating Link Recently Purchased Crane Wire Measurements w/o Insulating Link Source of RF Burn

14 Verify Radiation Cutout Zones Have Not Been Compromised
CAMS RADHAZ Cutout (2) (1) (3) Fire Control Director (1) Establishing “no-radiate zones” and setting CAMS for fire control radars is another important aspect of the overall ship survey process. NSSWS DIRECTOR (1) WSC-8 ANTENNA (2) CIWS MOUNT (3) AS-3081/WSC-1 ANTENNA Verify Radiation Cutout Zones Have Not Been Compromised

15 HERP Ship Certification Process
NAVSEA PEO’s SHIP TYPE COMMANDER EQUIPMENT MANAGERS NAVSEA S9040-AA-GTP-010/SSCR CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENT NEW CONSTRUCTION SHIP ALTS EQUIPMENT UPGRADES NAVSEA 05W43 HERP WARRENY HOLDER SHIP CERTIFICATION (Policy & Direction) Certification Message Issued NSWCDL Ship Certification Draft Message forwarded to NAVSEA Requirements: Schedule Money $ Request for Certification In accordance with NASEA’s established certification requirement – Requests for RADHAZ certification can come from; Ship Program Manager; Equipment Managers; or the Navy’s Ship TYPE Command. NSWCDL/J52, with the support of ship’s force or ship yard, executes the survey, installs the required control measures, and forwards a recommendation for certification to NAVEA. NAVSEA then issues a naval certification message. NSWCDL TECHNICAL & EXECUTION AGENT HERP CERTIFICATION ISSUED TO AFLOAT COMMANDS HERP SURVEY EXECUTED WITH SHIPS SUPPORT CONTROL MEASURES INSTALLED RADHAZ AWARENESS TRAINING Ship Coordination Support & Scheduling

16 RF Safety Instructions/Standards
IEEE C95.1 Revision Status IEEE C95.6 (0-3kHz) Introduction DoDINST Revision Status Tri-Service Panel (TERP) OPNAVINST D OP 3565 Vol I Revision OK, let’s now review the status of the present RADHAZ safety standards, and instructions that I talked about previously.

17 IEEE C95.1 Revision Status Safety Levels WRT Human Exposure to EM Fields 3 KHz to 300 GHz Initial Guidelines Were Published in 1993 Updated to Clarify Issues Associated with Body Currents and Re-Published in 1999 A Complete C95.1 Revision was finished in 2005, and published in 2006 *********************************************************************** Controlled Environments safety limit have remain relatively unchanged. Uncontrolled “General Public” criteria have undergo significant changes in a effort to “lower” the limits in a effort to harmonize with ICNIRP. The IEEE RF safety standard C95.1 which covers the 3 kHz to 300 GHz RF spectrum was initially published in 1993, and again republished in 1999 to clarify body current time averaging issue. The 1993 used 1 second T.A value. The 1999 publication corrected this mistake to a 6 min T.A. Currently a completed bottom-up revision ids in process and should be completed by the end of this CY.

18 EM Personnel Hazards 0 to 3KHz C95.6
Published in Oct 2002 Adverse Biological Effects: Nerve stimulation causing pain Inadvertent muscle excitation that may lead to work place injury Alteration of synaptic activity within the brain Cardiac excitation Adverse effects associated with blood flow To address the needs for a safety standard below 3 kHz the IEEE has developed a set of guidelines , and published guidance to cover the 0 to 3 kHz spectrum. C95.6, which is based upon Non-Thermal adverse health effects, was published in 2002 and provides guidance to avoid the biological effects listed here.. Synaptic – Synapse is described by electrical signals transmitted from one neuron to another by electrical or chemical means.

19 Summary of C95.6 (0-3kHz) Guidelines (Basic Restrictions)
Two Tier Standard – Controlled Environment & General Public Basic Restrictions for the Various Regions of the Body – In-Situ Electric Fields (V/m) Brain Heart Hands, Wrist, Feet & Ankles Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) - Magnetic Fields (A/m) Head & Torso Limits Vary with Frequency Ranges (0 – 3 kHz) Induced (feet) & Contact Current (grasping & touching) * Note: In-Situ “As Measured Within Biological Tissue” is Not a Field Measurable Quantity. Like the RF Standard C95.1 – C95.6 is a two tier standard with different limits for occupational/controlled, and general public environments. The basic restrictions are based upon electric fields as measured in various regions of the body tissue. Maximum Permissible Exposure Limits (MPEs), listed in the second bullet, were established as field measurable quantities to of determining overall compliance with the basic restrictions. * Note: Compliance with the Magnetic Fields MPE, Which are Readily Measurable Quantities, Will Ensure Compliance with the“Basic Restrictions”

20 Summary of C95.6 (0-3kHz) Guidelines (Cont’d)
Environmental Electric Field MPEs for Whole Body: Specifies Electric Field strengths for “General Public & Controlled Environment” exposures for various frequency ranges 0 to 3 kHz Induced and Contract Current MPEs for Both the “General Public, and Controlled Environment” the Following Conditions: Both feet Each Foot Contact grasp Contact touch C95.6 also includes MPEs that cover Induced, and Contact Current conditions much like those found in C95.1 – with one exception. C95.6 includes a touching limit, (C95.1) which covers the 3kHz to 300 GHz frequency region, does not have a contact/touching safety limit. C95.1 address contact body current flow limits in a grasping mode. Whole Body & Body Current MPEs Given Based Upon Numerous Special Considerations Listed in the C95.6 Std.

21 DoDINST Status Baseline DoD Instruction Was Published By the RFRWG/TERP in Feb of 1995 Which Adopted the IEEE Std. C95.1 Guidelines Published in 1993. A Revision to DODINST is in Process, Which Will Adopt the Recently Incorporated Changes to the IEEE Std. C95.1 Published in April 2006 Along with a Recommendation for DoD Services to Use the Newly Published IEEE Std. C95.6 Guidelines (0 to 3 kHz). The Current DoDINST Does Not Provide Guidance Below 3 kHz. The current DoDINST was published in Efforts are in process to bring this instruction up-to-date with the current 1999 IEEE RF safety standards, and also to include a recommendation for use of the recent publication of C95.6 to cover the below 3kHz safety hazards.

22 RFRWG – Radio Frequency Radiation Working Group (Formally) Tri-Service Electromagnetic Radiation Panel (TERP) Mission: Technical Advisor to DoD Environmental, Occupational and Safety Activities on all aspects of Radio Frequency Safety and Health Issues. Interfaces with other Federal, national and international organizations. Includes Experts from all DoD Services in the areas of bioeffects research, operations, medical, and policy. Prepares DoD draft positions on Radio Frequency Radiation standards issues and Environmental Impact Statements. Addresses Current DoD media concerns. Provides Representation on DoD Safety Occupational Health Working Group under the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Environment, Safety and Occupational Health ) The TERP comprises a panel of tri-service representative advisors to the “department of Defense Occupational Health Working Group under the Deputy under Secretary of Defense (Installations & Environments). Current efforts of this panel are focused on revising

23 OPNAVINST 5100.19D Status Current Status: Proposed Changes:
Revised August 2001 to reflect current 1999 version of IEEE C95.1 (3 kHz – 300 GHz) Proposed Changes: Revision in process to adopt guidelines listed in recently Published IEEE Std. C95.6 (0 – 3 kHz) C95.6 Guidelines are Needed to Avoid Potential Hazards as a Result of Emerging Technological Developments WRT Direct-Drive Electric Propulsion, Electromagnetic Rail Gun, and Electromagnetic Launched Aircraft Developments Within the US Navy OPNAVINST D serves to amplify on the guidance prorogated by the DoDINST, provide technical POCs, and to outline a process for reporting RF overexposures in the fleet. This instruction was revised in 2001 to reflect the IEEE C95.1 guidance, and is currently in process of a revision to adopt the recommended guidance of C to 3 kHz limits. This I feel is a necessary step in light of the emerging electromagnetic technology.

24 OP 3565 Vol I HERP/HERF Revision Six
Handbook of Technical Guidance for Personnel & Fuel Hazards Revision reflects current guidance provided by DoDINST US Navy Shipboard/Aircraft/Shore emitter list updated Technical discussion of HERP & HERF Calculated HERP safe separation distances listed HERF (Fuel) guidance remains unchanged Revision published in 2003 – Volumes I & II published on same CD OP 3565 is a two volume referenc handbook containg technical guidance for HERP (personnel), HERF (Fuel) Volume I, and HERO (ordnance) contained in Volume II. Volume I has recently under-gone a Sixth Revision to reflect HERP guidance contained in the IEEE C95.1 version. HERP HERF gasoline

25 Safety Status of US Navy Fleet
RADHAZ Baseline Surveys Conducted Onboard US Navy Ships (Post 1995) With the introduction of the new RF Safety limits in 1995 NSWCDL/J52 has been busy surveying ships in an effort to baseline all US Navy Ships to the 1995 set of RF safety guidelines.

26 US Navy Ship Status Baseline RADHAZ Surveys
Carriers CV’s CVN’s Combatants Cruisers (CG) Destroyers (DDG) Frigates (FFG) Amphibious Warfare Command LCC Amphibious Assault LHA LHD Amphibious Transport Docks LPD 4 LPD 17 Coastal Patrol Craft PC Mine Warfare MCM MHC Submarine Tenders AS Salvage ARS Miscellaneous Command AGF Our efforts to provide a new RF Safety baseline to the fleet has focused on a combination of individual ship, and ship class surveys. Ship class surveys consist of one or two ship surveys necessary to establish a set of RF safety control measures applicable for all ship in the class.

27 US Navy Ship Status Baseline RADHAZ Surveys (Cont’d)
Underway Replenishment AOE Submarines SSN 21 (SEAWOLF) SSN 688 (LOS ANGELES) SSN (VIRGINIA) SSBN Military Sealift Command T-AE T-AFS T-AGS T-AN T-AKR T-AO T-AKE


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