Presentation on theme: "47th Navy Occupational Health & Preventive Medicine Conference (NEHC)"— Presentation transcript:
1 47th Navy Occupational Health & Preventive Medicine Conference (NEHC) US Navy Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Personnel (HERP) Ship Survey and Certification Process17 March 2008Presented by:Robert NeedyE3 Assessment & Evaluation Branch (Q52)DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT "D" - Distribution authorized to DOD and DOD contractors only; administrative/operational use (January 2007). Other requests shall be referred to Commander Dahlgren Division, (Q50), Naval Surface Warfare Center, and Dahlgren Rd., Dahlgren, VANo secondary distribution authorized without prior approval of NSWCDD (Q50), Dahlgren, VADESTRUCTION NOTICE - For classified documents, follow the procedures contained in DOD M, Industrial Security Manual, Section II-19 or DOD R, Information Security Program Regulation, Chapter IX (Chapter 17 of OPNAVINST H). For unclassified, limited documents, destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of document.
2 Discussion Topics HERP US Navy Safety Program HERP Safety Standards & Instruction StatusUS Navy Certification Ship ListMy discussion topics include:- RF Hazards Cause & Effect- The Ship Survey & Certification Process- Bring your attention to some of the newdevelopments/revisions within theDepartment of Defense, US Navy& the IEEE Standards Committee.- The finally discuss the current status of thefleet wrt personnel RF safety.
3 HERP Ship Safety Program HERP - What is it ?Documentation – Policy & Standards UsedAs an introduction I want to first talk about the HERP Safety Program
4 HERP – Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Personnel HERP – Cause & EffectsHERP – Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to PersonnelCause (source of hazard) – Too many RF emitters for too little real estate.Effects (resulting effects) – Body heat increases, and excessive current flow through body extremities.Cause EffectsNon-Ionizing Radiation RF Radiation (Body Heating)(RF Emissions) RF BurnExcessive Body Currents- Induced- Contact (grasping)
5 Documentation Policy & Safety Guidance Used Technical Warrant Holder: NAVSEA 05W43 (Mark Johnson)Policy/Guidance:DoDINST – Protection of DoD Personnel from Exposure to RF RadiationOPNAVINST D – Occupational Safety & Health (NAVOSH) Forces AfloatNAVSEA S9040-AA-GRP-010/SSCR – Ship System Certification RequirementsNAVSEAINST – Integrated Topside Safety and Certification Program (Pointing, Firing, and RADHAZ Cutouts)OP 3565 Vol I – HERP/HERF Technical Guidance HandbookBaseline Standard:DoD & NAVOSH – Exposure Limits are derived from recommended limits established by American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/IEEE C95.1; which serve as a consensus standard of industry, scientific communities, government agencies and the publicIEEE C95.1 – Standard for safety levels with respect to human exposure to RF fields 3 KHz to 300 GHzThe documents listed in the second bullet provides overall DoD, and US Navy policy/guidance, requirements for establishing an RF safety program.The RF safety exposure limits used within the Dept of Defense, and US Navy were adopted from a commercial standard developed by ANSI/IEEE. The guidance contained in C95.1 cover the RF range of 3 KHz to 300 GHzRecently IEEE has successfully introduced a Standard for personnel safety levels that covers the 0 to 3 kHz spectrum - which I will talk about in more detail later in this brief. The DoD, and US Navy are in the process of adopting this standard as part of their baseline safety program.US Navy HERP Safety Programs Guided by DODINST
6 HERP – C95.1 Standard Characteristics RF Exposure Limits Based Upon Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) “Time Derivative of Energy Absorbed in a Body Mass”SAR is a Thermal “Heating” EffectCurrently C95.1 Sets SAR Threshold at 4 W/kg with a Safety Factor of (10) – 0.4 w/kg “Above 4 W/kg, There is an Increasing Chance of Adverse Biological Effects, But at or Below, There is No Established Evidence of Harm to Health”Based Upon a Two Tier Standard:Controlled Environments – Occupational AreasUncontrolled Environments – Public AreasIEEE C95.1 Defines Exposure Limits in Terms:RF Radiated Fields – V/m, A/m, mW/cm2Induced Body Currents – Feet/Foot (mA) – (3 KHz to 100 MHz)Contact Body Currents – Grasping Contact (mA) – (3 KHz to 100 MHz)A conservativestandard based uponBiological ThermalEffectsSome important characteristics of the IEEE C95.1 standard are listed here:> A time based thermal effect defined in terms of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR).> An internationally accepted SAR threshold was established & a safety factor of 10 applied to the limits.> Time averaged exposures over a 6 min period> A two tier limit criteria was set to address occupational & public environments. The public environmental standard has an additional safety factor of 5 applied.> Exposure limits defined in field measurable terms.
7 HERP Safety Program Ship HERP Survey Process Instrumentation Shipboard MeasurementsControl Measures ImplementationNAVSEA Ship Certification ProcessNow I want to talk about the US Navy ship Survey & NAVSEA Certification process:
8 Ship HERP Mitigation Process Guidelines/Instructions(IEEE C95.1 Baseline)DOD INSTDevelopAdministrativeControl Measures:Freq & Pwr ManagementPost Warning SignsCheck Radar/SATCOMCutoutsProvide On-SiteTraining & ReportEvaluate WorkplaceEMEOn-Site InstrumentedMeasurementsThe ship survey process is well established, and working process:A survey scheduled is established with the ship’s support.Field measurements are takenControl measures are developed based upon these measurements, & warning signs, PEL lines or other engineering controll measures are installed.A hazard awareness “out-breif” is conducted.
9 Instrumented Measurements Measurement Data used to Develop HERP Control MeasuresOn site fiels measurements are taken around potentially hazardous work areas.NAVSEA Dahlgren Division NSWC/Q52 is the Technical Agent for Shipboard HERP Mitigation
10 Survey Instrumentation NARDAEM Survey Meter Model 8723DWith Model 8723D Isotropic ProbeHOLADAYModel HI-4422 Electric Field ProbeModel HI-4416 Readout MeterMISSION RESEARCHModel MG-4501 Current Meters(Induced/Contact Body Current)Most of the survey equipment is commercially available measurement equipment. However, the Induced & contact current instruments were developed under a NAVSEA small business initiative effort.NAVSEARF Voltmeter(RF-Burn)
11 Radiation Hazard Warning Signs used on Ships Type 1Type 2Type 3Type 4Type 5Posted warning signs & painted PEL lines provide awareness and instructions on how to avoid the hazard.When properly displayedIdentify HazardsInform Sailors how to avoid Hazards
12 Personnel Exposure Limit Posted Warning SignsPersonnel Exposure Limit(PEL) Warning LinesRF BurnWarning SignPosted warning signs and painted PEL lines are shown hereWarningSignsPEL Lines
13 RF Burn IssuesThe Use of a RF Insulating Link Installed on Cargo/Boat Cranes Mitigates Potential RF Burn Safety Issue discovered onboard USS SAN ANTONIO (LPD 17)2-2 HF AntennaLPD 17 Insulating LinkRecently PurchasedCraneWireMeasurements w/oInsulating LinkSource of RF Burn
14 Verify Radiation Cutout Zones Have Not Been Compromised CAMS RADHAZ Cutout(2)(1)(3)Fire ControlDirector(1)Establishing “no-radiate zones” and setting CAMS for fire control radars is another important aspect of the overall ship survey process.NSSWS DIRECTOR(1) WSC-8 ANTENNA(2) CIWS MOUNT(3) AS-3081/WSC-1 ANTENNAVerify Radiation Cutout Zones Have Not Been Compromised
15 HERP Ship Certification Process NAVSEA PEO’sSHIP TYPE COMMANDEREQUIPMENT MANAGERSNAVSEA S9040-AA-GTP-010/SSCRCERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTNEW CONSTRUCTIONSHIP ALTSEQUIPMENT UPGRADESNAVSEA 05W43HERPWARRENY HOLDERSHIP CERTIFICATION(Policy & Direction)CertificationMessageIssuedNSWCDL Ship CertificationDraft Message forwarded to NAVSEARequirements:ScheduleMoney $Request for CertificationIn accordance with NASEA’s established certification requirement – Requests for RADHAZ certification can come from; Ship Program Manager; Equipment Managers; or the Navy’s Ship TYPE Command. NSWCDL/J52, with the support of ship’s force or ship yard, executes the survey, installs the required control measures, and forwards a recommendation for certification to NAVEA. NAVSEA then issues a naval certification message.NSWCDLTECHNICAL &EXECUTIONAGENTHERP CERTIFICATIONISSUED TOAFLOAT COMMANDSHERP SURVEY EXECUTEDWITH SHIPS SUPPORTCONTROL MEASURES INSTALLEDRADHAZ AWARENESS TRAININGShip CoordinationSupport & Scheduling
16 RF Safety Instructions/Standards IEEE C95.1 Revision StatusIEEE C95.6 (0-3kHz) IntroductionDoDINST Revision StatusTri-Service Panel (TERP)OPNAVINST DOP 3565 Vol I RevisionOK, let’s now review the status of the present RADHAZ safety standards, and instructions that I talked about previously.
17 IEEE C95.1 Revision StatusSafety Levels WRT Human Exposure to EM Fields 3 KHz to 300 GHzInitial Guidelines Were Published in 1993Updated to Clarify Issues Associated with Body Currents and Re-Published in 1999A Complete C95.1 Revision was finished in 2005, and published in 2006***********************************************************************Controlled Environments safety limit have remain relatively unchanged. Uncontrolled “General Public” criteria have undergo significant changes in a effort to “lower” the limits in a effort to harmonize with ICNIRP.The IEEE RF safety standard C95.1 which covers the 3 kHz to 300 GHz RF spectrum was initially published in 1993, and again republished in 1999 to clarify body current time averaging issue. The 1993 used 1 second T.A value. The 1999 publication corrected this mistake to a 6 min T.A. Currently a completed bottom-up revision ids in process and should be completed by the end of this CY.
18 EM Personnel Hazards 0 to 3KHz C95.6 Published in Oct 2002Adverse Biological Effects:Nerve stimulation causing painInadvertent muscle excitation that may lead to work place injuryAlteration of synaptic activity within the brainCardiac excitationAdverse effects associated with blood flowTo address the needs for a safety standard below 3 kHz the IEEE has developed a set of guidelines , and published guidance to cover the 0 to 3 kHz spectrum. C95.6, which is based upon Non-Thermal adverse health effects, was published in 2002 and provides guidance to avoid the biological effects listed here..Synaptic – Synapse is described by electrical signals transmitted from one neuron to another by electrical or chemical means.
19 Summary of C95.6 (0-3kHz) Guidelines (Basic Restrictions) Two Tier Standard – Controlled Environment & General PublicBasic Restrictions for the Various Regions of the Body – In-Situ Electric Fields (V/m)BrainHeartHands, Wrist, Feet & AnklesMaximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) - Magnetic Fields (A/m)Head & TorsoLimits Vary with Frequency Ranges (0 – 3 kHz)Induced (feet) & Contact Current (grasping & touching)* Note: In-Situ “As Measured Within Biological Tissue” is Not a Field Measurable Quantity.Like the RF Standard C95.1 – C95.6 is a two tier standard with different limits for occupational/controlled, and general public environments. The basic restrictions are based upon electric fields as measured in various regions of the body tissue. Maximum Permissible Exposure Limits (MPEs), listed in the second bullet, were established as field measurable quantities to of determining overall compliance with the basic restrictions.* Note: Compliance with the Magnetic Fields MPE, Which are ReadilyMeasurable Quantities, Will Ensure Compliance with the“Basic Restrictions”
20 Summary of C95.6 (0-3kHz) Guidelines (Cont’d) Environmental Electric Field MPEs for Whole Body:Specifies Electric Field strengths for “General Public & Controlled Environment” exposures for various frequency ranges 0 to 3 kHzInduced and Contract Current MPEs for Both the “General Public, and Controlled Environment” the Following Conditions:Both feetEach FootContact graspContact touchC95.6 also includes MPEs that cover Induced, and Contact Current conditions much like those found in C95.1 – with one exception. C95.6 includes a touching limit, (C95.1) which covers the 3kHz to 300 GHz frequency region, does not have a contact/touching safety limit. C95.1 address contact body current flow limits in a grasping mode.Whole Body & Body Current MPEs Given Based Upon Numerous Special Considerations Listed in the C95.6 Std.
21 DoDINST StatusBaseline DoD Instruction Was Published By the RFRWG/TERP in Feb of 1995 Which Adopted the IEEE Std. C95.1 Guidelines Published in 1993.A Revision to DODINST is in Process, Which Will Adopt the Recently Incorporated Changes to the IEEE Std. C95.1 Published in April 2006 Along with a Recommendation for DoD Services to Use the Newly Published IEEE Std. C95.6 Guidelines (0 to 3 kHz). The Current DoDINST Does Not Provide Guidance Below 3 kHz.The current DoDINST was published in Efforts are in process to bring this instruction up-to-date with the current 1999 IEEE RF safety standards, and also to include a recommendation for use of the recent publication of C95.6 to cover the below 3kHz safety hazards.
22 RFRWG – Radio Frequency Radiation Working Group (Formally) Tri-Service Electromagnetic Radiation Panel (TERP)Mission:Technical Advisor to DoD Environmental, Occupational and Safety Activities on all aspects of Radio Frequency Safety and Health Issues.Interfaces with other Federal, national and international organizations.Includes Experts from all DoD Services in the areas of bioeffects research, operations, medical, and policy.Prepares DoD draft positions on Radio Frequency Radiation standards issues and Environmental Impact Statements.Addresses Current DoD media concerns.Provides Representation on DoD Safety Occupational Health Working Group under the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Environment, Safety and Occupational Health )The TERP comprises a panel of tri-service representative advisors to the “department of Defense Occupational Health Working Group under the Deputy under Secretary of Defense (Installations & Environments). Current efforts of this panel are focused on revising
23 OPNAVINST 5100.19D Status Current Status: Proposed Changes: Revised August 2001 to reflect current 1999 version of IEEE C95.1 (3 kHz – 300 GHz)Proposed Changes:Revision in process to adopt guidelines listed in recently Published IEEE Std. C95.6 (0 – 3 kHz)C95.6 Guidelines are Needed to Avoid Potential Hazards as a Result of Emerging Technological Developments WRT Direct-Drive Electric Propulsion, Electromagnetic Rail Gun, and Electromagnetic Launched Aircraft DevelopmentsWithin the US Navy OPNAVINST D serves to amplify on the guidance prorogated by the DoDINST, provide technical POCs, and to outline a process for reporting RF overexposures in the fleet. This instruction was revised in 2001 to reflect the IEEE C95.1 guidance, and is currently in process of a revision to adopt the recommended guidance of C to 3 kHz limits. This I feel is a necessary step in light of the emerging electromagnetic technology.
24 OP 3565 Vol I HERP/HERF Revision Six Handbook of Technical Guidance for Personnel & Fuel HazardsRevision reflects current guidance provided by DoDINSTUS Navy Shipboard/Aircraft/Shore emitter list updatedTechnical discussion of HERP & HERFCalculated HERP safe separation distances listedHERF (Fuel) guidance remains unchangedRevision published in 2003 – Volumes I & II published on same CDOP 3565 is a two volume referenc handbook containg technical guidance for HERP (personnel), HERF (Fuel) Volume I, and HERO (ordnance) contained in Volume II. Volume I has recently under-gone a Sixth Revision to reflect HERP guidance contained in the IEEE C95.1 version.HERPHERFgasoline
25 Safety Status of US Navy Fleet RADHAZ Baseline Surveys Conducted Onboard US Navy Ships (Post 1995)With the introduction of the new RF Safety limits in 1995 NSWCDL/J52 has been busy surveying ships in an effort to baseline all US Navy Ships to the 1995 set of RF safety guidelines.
26 US Navy Ship Status Baseline RADHAZ Surveys CarriersCV’sCVN’sCombatantsCruisers (CG)Destroyers (DDG)Frigates (FFG)Amphibious Warfare CommandLCCAmphibious AssaultLHALHDAmphibious Transport DocksLPD 4LPD 17Coastal Patrol CraftPCMine WarfareMCMMHCSubmarine TendersASSalvageARSMiscellaneous CommandAGFOur efforts to provide a new RF Safety baseline to the fleet has focused on a combination of individual ship, and ship class surveys. Ship class surveys consist of one or two ship surveys necessary to establish a set of RF safety control measures applicable for all ship in the class.
27 US Navy Ship Status Baseline RADHAZ Surveys (Cont’d) Underway ReplenishmentAOESubmarinesSSN 21 (SEAWOLF)SSN 688 (LOS ANGELES)SSN (VIRGINIA)SSBNMilitary Sealift CommandT-AET-AFST-AGST-ANT-AKRT-AOT-AKE