4 Defining Intellectual Disability or Mental Retardation 1961 AAIDD definition“Subaverage general intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period and is associated with impairments in adaptive behavior.”1973 AAIDD definition“Significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior, and manifested during the developmental period.”1983 AAIDD definition“Significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with concurrent impairment in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period.”
5 Defining Intellectual Disability or Mental Retardation 1992 AAIDD definition“Significantly subaverage intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive skill areas: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work. Mental retardation manifests before age 18.”It portrays intellectual disability as a relationship among three key elements: the individual, the environment, and the type of support required for maximum functioning in various settings.It stresses functioning in one’s community rather than just focusing on the clinical aspect of the individual such as IQ score or adaptive behavior.
6 Defining Intellectual Disability or Mental Retardation 2002 AAIDD definition“Mental retardation is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18.”Limitations in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individual’s age, peers, and culture.With appropriate personalized supports over a sustained period, the life functioning of the person with an intellectual disability will generally improve.
7 Defining Intellectual Disability or Mental Retardation 2010 AAIDD definitionThe term mental retardation is replaced by the more contemporary label, intellectual disabilities.Developed by a committee of eighteen medical and legal scholars as well as policymakers, educators, and other professionals, the 2010 definition emphasizes the abilities and assets of individuals with intellectual disabilities rather than their deficits or limitations.Intellectual disabilities are viewed as a state of functioning rather than an inherent trait. As in earlier definitions, one of the goals of the 2010 definition is to maximize support services so as to allow persons with intellectual disabilities to participate fully in all aspects of daily life.
9 Assessing Intellectual Ability Assessment tools:Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition (WISC-IV)Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (5th ed.)Potential problems:Potential for cultural biasFlexibility of IQ scoresOveremphasis on IQ scoreWatch this video to learn more about diagnosing students with intellectual disabilities
10 Assessing Adaptive Behavior Adaptive behavior is seen as “the degree to which, and the efficiency with which, the individual meets the standards of maturation, learning, personal independence, and/or social responsibility that are expected for his or her age level and cultural group.”(Grossman, 1983, p. 11)Assessing Adaptive BehaviorConsiders the context of the individual’s environment and cultural influencesAssessment Tools:AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-SchoolAAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-Residential and Community
11 Classification of Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities Etiological perspective- consequence of disease processes or biological defectsIntellectual deficits- classification based on IQ scoreEducational perspective- use of outdated terms to distinguish a children’s level of ability to learn academic or employment skillsLevels of supports- definitions have shifted to an emphasis on the level of supports that an individual needs rather than IQ score
14 Brief History of the Field Early civilizationsThe Middle AgesEarly optimism (early nineteenth century)Protection and pessimism (late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries)Emergence of public education for students with intellectual disabilities
15 Prevalence of Intellectual Disabilities Over 476,000 students between the ages of were identified as having intellectual disabilities during the school year.These students represent approximately 8% of all pupils with disabilities and about 1% of the total school age population.The number of students identified as having intellectual disabilities has decreased over the years.
16 Etiology of Intellectual Disabilities or Mental Retardation Prenatal (before birth)chromosomal, maternal infections, environmental factors, unknown influencesPerinatal (during birth)gestational disorders, neonatal complicationsPostnatal (after birth)infections and intoxicants, environmental factorsTo learn about people with Down Syndrome view the following video: Down Syndrome in the 21st Century
18 Prevention of Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Retardation Prevention Levels:Primary (before onset or occurrence)Prenatal care, genetic testing, ultrasoundSecondary (reduce risk factors)Newborn screeningTertiary (interventions)Aimed at maximizing the quality of life for a person with a disability
19 Characteristics of Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities or Mental Retardation Social and BehavioralCharacteristics-poor interpersonal skills-socially appropriateinteractions-difficulty establishing and maintaining friendshipsLearning Characteristics-attention-memory-academic performance-motivation-generalization-language development
23 Educational Considerations Functional academics/functional curriculumCommunity-based instructionStandards-based instructionIEP teams must consider:student and family preferences, student’s age and years left in school, rate of learning, current and future settings, other skill needs
24 Effective Instructional Techniques High expectationsTask analysisCooperative learningScaffoldingInclusion strategies:Modify instruction, materials, and assessmentsTeach organizational skillsMonitor progress of all studentsCollaborate with families
25 Services for Young Children With Intellectual Disabilities Early intervention can be defined as the services and supports rendered to children with disabilities or those who evidence risk factors, younger than age 3, and their families.Early intervention represents a consortium of services—not just educational assistance but also health care, social services, family supports, and other benefits.
27 Adults With Intellectual Disabilities Integration in all aspects of daily life with nondisabled peersSelf-determination: decision-making capacity must be fosteredSelf-advocacy: encourage people with intellectual disabilities to advocate for their own wants and needsWatch this video to learn about a woman with intellectual disabilities: Intellectual Disabilities
28 Family IssuesFamilies with a child with intellectual disabilities may experience a wide range of concerns and often rely on a support network made up of friends and family members in addition to parent organizations and professional groups.
29 Issues of DiversityOverrepresentation of minority students in special education programsCulturally biased assessment tools and practicesTeacher expectations
30 Technology and Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities Instructional technology: any device that supports the teaching/learning process, such as a computer or televisionAssistive technology: technology that is specially designed to assist persons with disabilities
31 Trends, Issues, and Controversies Genetic testingQuality of lifeAttitudinal changesTechnology and medical advancesInclusive educationIncreased self-advocacy and self- determination