CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM A.Brain B.Spinal Cord a.Spinal Reflexes- simple automatic responses to something.
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Somatic Nervous System- Enables us to experience sensations such as hot or cold. Alerts us that parts of the body have changed position. Helps to maintain balance and posture
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Autonomic Nervous System- Sympathetic-activated when someone is going into action because of a stressful event. (fight or flight response) Parasympathetic-restores the body’s reserves of energy after an action has occurred. Brings our body to a peaceful state
THE BRAIN Composed of many parts that organize our movements, create our thoughts, form our emotions and produce our behaviors. Divided into 3 Sections: The lower level: medulla, pons and cerebellum The middle level: Limbic system includes the amygdala, hypothalamus and reticular formation. The outer level: the cerebrum and cerebral cortex.
THE BRAIN Cerebral Cortex The part that makes us uniquely human. It is the part that thinks! Composed of 2 sides (hemispheres) Connected by the corpus callosum The brain is composed of 4 lobes. frontal lobe-motor functions parietal lobe-sensory area occipital lobe-primary visual area temporal lobe-auditory area
ASSOCIATION AREAS Shapes information into something meaningful
THE BRAIN AND LANGUAGE ABILITIES Cerebral Cortex- Association Areas- shapes information into something meaningful Language abilities- concentrated in the left hemisphere Broca’s area-located in the frontal lobe. It enables us to move our lips when speaking. When damaged, people speak slowly and with difficulty but comprehension is good. Wernicke’s area-located in the temporal lobe. It pieces together sounds and sights. Damage to this area makes it difficult to understand speech.
METHODS OF STUDYING THE BRAIN Accidents Electrical stimulation of the brain Electroencephalogram (EEG)-a device that studies the electrical activity of the brain.
PHINEAS GAGE Read “What Happened to Phineas Gage?” Answer the following questions in complete sentences: 1.Describe Phineas Gage’s accident. 2.How did Phineas Gage change after the accident? 3. How did Phineas Gage’s accident change scientists’ understanding of the brain? Video clip: Phineas GagePhineas Gage