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10.3 and 10.4 Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "10.3 and 10.4 Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 10.3 and 10.4 Notes

2 Control of the Cell Cycle
The cell cycle is controlled by proteins called cyclins and enzymes that bind to those proteins Regulation can be internal or external depending on whether the signal to divide comes from inside or outside the cell

3 Apoptosis A process of programmed cell death
Occurs naturally during development or can be a result of diseases such as Parkinson’s or AIDS

4 Cancer When the segment of DNA (gene) that codes for the regulatory proteins is damaged the cell may divide uncontrollably Cancer is a growth (tumor) resulting from uncontrolled cell division

5 Cancer Scientists have identified p53 as a tumor suppressing gene that controls cell division Cells with damaged p53 genes do not respond to signals to divide normally.

6 Cancer Tumors can be benign or malignant depending on whether they affect healthy cells Malignant tumors affect surrounding healthy tissue by depriving them of nutrients or blocking nerve connections Sometimes cancer can travel to other parts of the body, this is called metastisis

7 Cancer Causes and Prevention
Can be caused by genetic or environmental factors (ex: cancer runs in families, smoking, pollution, UV rays) Healthy choices about diet, exercise and tobacco use can help prevent cancer

8 Screening for Cancer Doctors can use imaging techniques such as radiology to search for cancer Biopsies involve taking a sample of cells or tissues to examine

9 Do You See the Gorilla? 80% of radiologists did not!

10 Cancer Treatments Surgery if tumor is contained
Radiation targets cells that divide rapidly Chemotherapy consists of chemical compounds that target dividing cells and can therefore interfere with normal division in healthy cells

11 Fluorescence microscopy allows scientists to label parts of the cell and view the phases of the cell cycle in more detail

12 Check For Understanding…
1. The type of protein which controls the cell cycle is a. tubulin b. keratin c. cyclin d. collagen

13 Which of the following best describes apoptosis?
a. programmed cell death b. cancer cells migrate to other parts of the body c. cells divide repeatedly d. taking a sample of cells

14 3. Which disease is a result of uncontrolled cell division. a
3. Which disease is a result of uncontrolled cell division? a. diabetes b. flu c. cystic fibrosis d. cancer

15 Which of the following is most likely to result from a malignant tumor?
a. cancer migrates to a different part of the body b. rapidly dividing cells are destroyed c. it remains isolated and usually harmless d. genetic mutations

16 Which of the following is NOT a potential cause for cancer?
a. genetics b. tobacco c. lots of fruits and vegetables d. UV radiation

17 Cell Differentiation Each of us starts life as a single cell
All multicellular organisms pass through the stage called an embryo

18 Cells become specialized for perform different functions through the process of differentiation

19 Scientists can map the fate of every single cell division in some organisms ( C. elegans)

20 Stem Cells Remember that every living thing starts out as a single cell. That cell is said to be totipotent because it can become any type of cell. Cells that are pluripotent can develop into most, but not all, cells in the body.

21 Stem cells are undifferentiated cells from which specific cell types develop. There are two types of stem cells Embryonic stem cells which are pluripotent and can become most cell types

22 Adult stem cells which are found throughout the body after development and are multipotent because they can develop into several different types of cells

23 Stem Cell Research Benefits: stem cells offer the benefit of using undifferentiated cells to replace or repair those damaged by heart attack, stroke or spinal cord injury

24 Ethics: most ethical questions come from obtaining embryonic stem cells because harvesting the cells causes destruction of the embryo The funding of stem cell research has become an important political issue It is controversial because the arguments for and against involve ethical issues of life and death

25 Technological Solutions
There has been research suggesting it's possible to extract a small number of stem cells from an embryo without damaging it It may also be possible to switch “on" and reprogram adult stem cells so they can differentiate into a greater variety of cells

26 Check For Understanding…
Cells becoming specialized to perform different functions is known as a. metastasis b. differentiation c. apoptosis d. chemotherapy

27 Cells that can become any type of cell are known as
a. totipotent b. pluripotent c. multipotent d. adult stem cells

28 3. Embryonic cells that can become most, but not all, cell types are called
a. totipotent b. pluripotent c. multipotent d. adult stem cells

29 4. Adult stem cells can become several different types of cells
4. Adult stem cells can become several different types of cells. They are known as a. totipotent b. pluripotent c. multipotent d. adult stem cells

30 Which of the following is NOT a benefit of stem cell research?
a. treating stroke victims b. treating heart attack victims c. treating cancer d. treating spinal cord injuries

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