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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO THE BODY HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY."— Presentation transcript:



3 Anatomy/Physiology ANATOMY - study of the structure of an organism and the relationships of its parts Anatomists learn about the human body by dissection PHYSIOLOGY – study of the function of living organisms and their parts Requires active experimentation Anatomical structures are designed for their specific functions FORM FITS FUNCTION! “Struc-Func”

4 History of Anatomical Studies Andreas Vesalius 1514-1564 Obtained bodies of executed criminals for dissection Founder of modern human anatomy Published the first true anatomy textbook De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body) Henry Gray 1827-1861 Published Gray’s Anatomy Recent editions still used by medical students today

5 “Muscle Man” as seen in De Humani Corporis Fabrica by Andreas Vesalius

6 Hand-colored diagram of blood vessels in the neck as seen in Gray’s Anatomy (2 nd ed.) by Henry Gray

7 Structural Levels of Organization The body is a single structure, but it is made up of trillions of smaller structures working together to make a functioning organism Atoms combine to form molecules Molecules combine to form organelles Organelles combine to form cells (smallest “living” unit) Cells that work together combine to form tissues Tissues that work together to form organs Organs that work together form an organ system Organ Systems that work together form an organism

8 Structural Levels of Organization

9 Balance of Body Functions All living organisms have mechanisms that ensure survival of the body by keeping consistent internal conditions Homeostasis – regulation of the living environment – “biological balance” Every organism must have some sort of self-regulation to maintain homeostasis Known as FEEDBACK LOOPS

10 Negative Feedback Loop Negates or opposes a change in a condition By reversing the change, it returns to normal

11 Positive Feedback Loop Not as common Amplify or reinforce a change that is occurring Causes increase in rate of occurrence of events until something stops the process Examples: Uterine contractions in the birthing process; increasingly rapid sticking together of platelets to cuts

12 System – Group of organs that perform a more complex function than any organ alone Integument Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Circulatory Respiratory Digestive Lymphatic Urinary Listing of the 10 organ systems (the human body’s largest and most complex structural unit)

13 Human Organ Systems Poster & Peer-Teaching Project

14 INTEGUMENTARY Skin – 20 lbs-(16%) body weight (largest and most important organ of integumentary system) Appendages –hair, nails, sweat / oil glands Sense Organs – respond to pain, pressure, touch and changes in temperature Function: Primary is protection Regulates body temperature

15 SKELETAL 206 bones, cartilage, ligaments, joints Function: Support and protection Storage for minerals (Ca, P) Formation of blood cells in red marrow of certain bones

16 MUSCULAR Voluntary (STRIATED) Skeletal Muscle – under conscious control Involuntary Smooth Muscle (Stomach, Small Intestine) Cardiac Muscle - Heartbeat Function : Movement, body posture, shape, generate heat Tendon – attaches muscle to bone

17 NERVOUS Sense organs: Brain, spinal cord, nerves Nerves extend from brain and spinal cord to every area of body Functions: 1. Communication between body functions 2. Integration of body functions 3. Control of body functions 4. Recognition and response to stimuli 5. Rapid, precise control of body functions Functions are done by specialized signals - nerve impulses

18 ENDOCRINE Glands that secrete hormones: pituitary, pineal, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas Functions: Produce and secrete hormones; communication; control growth; regulate metabolism, fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance and reproduction

19 CIRCULATORY Heart, arteries, veins, capillaries Cardiovascular refers to heart and blood vessels Functions: Transportation of O 2, CO 2, nutrients, hormones Regulate body temp. Defense or immunity

20 RESPIRATORY Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli (air sacs) Function: O 2 – CO 2 exchange in alveoli (air sacs) Warming air Irritants removed Regulates acid- base balances

21 DIGESTIVE Primary (GI TRACT) – mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus Secondary – teeth, salivary glands, tongue, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, appendix Functions: Proper digestion of food, absorb nutrients, eliminate waste (feces)

22 LYMPHATIC Lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, tonsils, thymus, spleen Functions: Movement of large molecules from tissue spaces around cells Movement of fat-related nutrients form digestive tract to blood Also is involved in functioning of the immune system Lymphatic vessels are filled with lymph, a whitish watery fluid composed of lymphocytes, proteins and some fatty molecules

23 URINARY Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra Functions: Clean blood Maintain acid-base, electrolytes, and water balances Produces and releases urine


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