2 Informational TextInformational or expository text tends to be more complex, diverse, and challenging than narrative text.It is important to integrate expository texts in language arts instruction and integrate comprehension into content-area teaching.Types of informational texts includeinstructions, brochures, cataloguesdirections, recipes, manuals, signsmagazine and news articles, websites, textbooks
3 Informational Text Structure Informational text structures includeDescription: explains or defines topic or conceptCompare-Contrast: presents similarities and differencesCause-Effect: presents reasons an event happened and its resultsProblem/Solution: poses a problem and suggests possible solutionsTime Order (Sequence): groups ideas by order or time
4 Graphic OrganizersConcrete representations of informational text structure provide students a means torecord information about underlying text structure;see how concepts fit within the structures;focus on the most important ideas;examine relationships among concepts;recall key text information;write well-organized summaries.See examples of informational text structure graphic organizers on page 684.
5 Considerate TextsThree overlapping features characterize and help to define considerate texts.Structural cues: introductions, summaries, titles, headings, charts, tables, type font, bullets etc.Coherence: clarity of writing in explicitly stated main ideas, information supports development of main idea, logical order of events and ideas, use of signal words, precise language, smooth transitionsAudience appropriateness: conceptual density or the number of new concepts introduced
6 Strategy ApplicationRecognizing informational text structure can be developed throughdetecting signal words;noting graphic features (e.g. headings, tables, etc.);creating graphic organizers to lay out or organize information.Monitoring comprehension when reading to learn new information requires metacognitive awarenessknowledge about ourselves as learnersknowledge of the tasks we faceknowledge of the strategies we use
7 Strategy Application Connecting to World Knowledge Students learn new information by connecting it to knowledge from their prior experience.Readers’ world knowledge shapes the way they perceive information in text.The K-W-L procedure can be used to tap prior knowledge.K- assessing what students knowW- assessing what students want to learnL- noting what students have learned from the textWhen readers’ world knowledge matches information in text, they connect it to their existing schema for the topic or concept.When readers’ world knowledge conflicts with the information in the text, they modify their schema or reject the information.
8 Strategy Application Predicting Students make predictions about informational text by scanning structural cues that indicate its organization.Students make predictions about the purpose of the text as a whole, as well as the functions of various parts of the text.Previewing the text in this way organizes students’ thinking, preparing them to learn new information presented in the text.
9 Strategy Application Asking Questions Answering Questions Students need instruction in how to ask higher-level questions to help them learn from informational text.In the strategy elaborative interrogation, students ask why a fact makes sense, which helps them explain or expand text information and better remember it.Answering QuestionsThe QAR framework is a type of question-answering instruction that focuses on a three-way relationship among question types: 1.Right There 2.Think and Search 3. On My Own 4. Author and Me.
10 Strategy Application Constructing Mental Images Summarizing strategies Readers can create pictures in their minds, which depict the content of the text.Think aloud models help students to learn the thinking processes needed to visualize.Summarizing strategiesParagraph shrinking: identify main ideas: shrink it into one sentence 10 words or lessCollaborative Strategic Reading: substitute a more general term for a list of terms; delete redundant information; delete information that is not central to overall meaning; select or create a topic sentenceParagraph shrinking: Collaborative Strategic Reading CSR: “getting the gist”
11 Reader ResponseEven when reading informational text, students use their existing knowledge to respond to the author’s point of view and bias.Discussion-Oriented Instruction such as Questioning the Author (QtA) teaches students to question what they read, to think, to probe, to associate, and to critique.Writing for Content-Area Learning provides opportunities for response to informational text by writing reviews of texts, making improvements to texts, and creating their own informational texts.
12 Motivation and Engagement Engaged Readersare motivated;are knowledge driven;are socially interactive;believe in their reading skills;persist in the face of difficulty;possess a variety of cognitive comprehension strategies.
13 Web-Based Text The benefits of Web-based text Readers can follow links to definitions, background, and more detailed explanations to support comprehension.Readers learn more easily from Web-based than printed text as long as options for navigation and browsing are limited.Electronic text can be more motivating especially for struggling readers.Reading on the Web requires additional demands on the reader in specialized strategy application.* See Strategy Application in Web-Based Text chart on page 697
14 When to TeachPrimary grade students need increased instructional time with informational text.Young children often prefer age-appropriate informational text, which builds world knowledge.After grade 3, reading content-area texts becomes increasingly important to expand their knowledge.It is critical to balance and integrate explicit comprehension strategies instruction with emphasis on the content of the text.
15 When to Assess and Intervene It is necessary to assess comprehension processes as well as outcomesWhen assessment reveals that students are misusing or not using a specific strategy, additional instructional support is requiredComprehension Assessment Response Formats includecloze: maze CBMopen ended/ multiple choice questionsretellingthink aloud protocolCloze: filling in blanks with words from a word bank by choosing the word that makes the most sense in the sentenceOpen Ended: oral or written responses to questions about a passageMultiple choice: student chooses best answer to questionRetelling: oral reconstruction of passageThink Aloud Protocol: students think aloud in response to teacher prompts