Everything, whether it is a rock, dog, car, or flower, is made of incredibly small particles called __________. atoms
An atom is the smallest basic unit of matter. How many atoms could fit in a space the size of a period? _________________ millions of atoms
Matter is anything that has ___________ and occupies ________. mass space
0 -1 Although there is a huge variety of matter on earth, all atoms share the same basic structure. Atoms consist of three types of smaller particles: _______________ are positively charged (+1) _______________ are neutral (no charge, 0) _______________ are negatively charged (-1) electrons neutrons protons protons neutrons electrons
The __________ is the area in the center of the atom with a positive charge that contains ____________ and ______________. nucleus protonsneutrons nucleus
What is the charge of a proton? _____ What is the charge of a electron? _____ What is the charge of a neutron? _____ +1 0
Atoms are neutral because they have the same number protons as electrons. number of protonsnumber of electrons = How many protons in this atom? _____ 3 How many electrons in this atom? _____ 3 What is the overall charge of this atom? ______________ += 0(+3)(-3)
Are all atoms identical? ______ How does one atom differ from another atom? ____________________________ no In the number of protons and electrons
USE A PERIODIC TABLE TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING: An atom with 1 proton is an atom of ___________. An atom with 2 protons is an atom of __________. An atom with 8 protons is an atom of __________. An atom with 13 protons is an atom of _________. An atom with 47 protons is an atom of _________. An atom with 79 protons is an atom of _________. hydrogen, H helium, He oxygen, O aluminum,Al silver, Ag gold, Au
All matter is made up of elements. Elements are made up of atoms. Example: piece of aluminum foil
Element – a pure substance made of one particular type of atom, and it cannot be broken down into a simpler substance. Aluminum, Al
There are 109 elements on Earth, of these, 91 elements occur naturally, but only about 25 are found in organisms.
Elements found in living organisms: Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sulfur Chlorine Sodium Magnesium Iodine Fluorine Iron Bromine Aluminum Silicon Manganese
96% of the mass of a human is made of only 4 elements – carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
Composition of the Human Body 65% oxygen 1.5% calcium 0.2% potassium 18% carbon 1.2% phosphorus 0.1% sodium 10% hydrogen 0.2% sulfur and other elements 3% nitrogen
Most elements do not exist alone. Elements combine to form compounds. Compound - a substance that is composed of atoms of two or more different elements. O HH What compound is this? _________ Chemical formula? _________ water H2OH2OH2OH2O What elements is water composed of? _____________ hydrogen oxygen
Examples of compounds: CO 2 --- elements? atoms? carbon dioxide carbon & oxygen one atom of carbon two atoms of oxygen
NaCl --- elements? atoms? sodium chloride sodium & chlorine one atom of sodium one atom of chlorine
C 6 H 12 O 6 --- elements? atoms? glucose Carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen 6 atoms of carbon 12 atoms of hydrogen 6 atoms of oxygen
The different elements that make up a compound are held together by chemical bonds. A chemical bond is a force of attraction between two atoms. O HH Water, H 2 O Chemical bond
Every compound is unique and is different from the elements that make it up.
NaCl --- sodium chloride Sodium (Na) is a solid chlorine (Cl) is a poisonous gas, yet they combine to form table salt, an edible solid.