Presentation on theme: "Ions & Ionic Bonding. Ionatoms that has an electrical charge Ion: any atom or group of atoms that has an electrical charge. Since protons and neutrons."— Presentation transcript:
Ionatoms that has an electrical charge Ion: any atom or group of atoms that has an electrical charge. Since protons and neutrons are fixed in the nucleus, an electron must be lost or gained to create an ion. Cation positively charged ion Cation: when a neutral atom (same number of p + and e - ) gives up an electron, the positively charged ion that results is called a cation. Anion negatively charged ion Anion: when a neutral atom gains an electron, the negatively charged ion that results is called an anion.
Anions are named using the name of the element but ending in ide and the word ion. Cl -1 Chloride ion P -3 Phosphide ion Cations are named using the name of the element and the word ion. Ca +2 Calcium ion Li +1 Lithium ion
Be Na remove the electrons becomes a beryllium ion A beryllium atom has 4p + and 4e -. If we add energy we can remove the electrons from the highest energy level. The beryllium atom then becomes a beryllium ion, which has 4p + and 2e-. This means the ion has a charge of + 2. A sodium atom has 11p + and 11e -. If the electron in the highest energy level is removed, a sodium ion remains. This ion has 11p + and 10e -, which means it has a charge of +1. Be +2 is the symbol for the beryllium ion. Na +1 is the symbol for the sodium ion. These ions are both cations (they have a positive charge).
An oxygen atom has 8p + and 8e -. Its highest energy level has 6 of a possible 8 electrons. When an oxygen atom gains 2 electrons from another atom’s highest energy level, it becomes an oxide ion. This anion has 8 p + and 10 e -. Its symbol is O -2. O
Electron Dot Diagrams Also called Lewis structures. Depict an element’s symbol with its valence electrons ex.
State the Protons, Electrons, & Neutrons in the following As -3 33 75 Hg +1 80 200 Cr +2 24 53. Protons Electrons Neutrons.
An energy level gets filled when an atom gains or loses electrons. NaCl [Na] +1 [Cl] -1 For example: Sodium (Na) needs to get rid of one Chlorine(Cl) needs to gain one Sodium (Na) needs to get rid of one electron to have a full outer energy level, and Chlorine(Cl) needs to gain one in order to have a full outer energy level. NaCl Sodium chloride is formed when sodium gives an electron to chlorine. Both atoms become ions. This is called IONIC bonding.
another example: Mg O Magnesium has two valence electrons. Oxygen has 6 valence electrons. Magnesium oxide is formed when magnesium gives two electrons to oxygen. Mg +2 O -2 MgO Magnesium Oxide
What if: Ca F Calcium has 2 valence electrons. Fluorine has 7 valence electrons. Calcium can provide 1 electron to fluorine. What does calcium do with its other e-? F Ca +2 F -1 x 2 CaF 2 calcium fluoride
Using Lewis structures predict the ionic bonds that occur between: 1.Potassium & bromine 2.Potassium & oxygen 3.Potassium & nitrogen 4.Calcium & chlorine 5.Beryllium & nitrogen
Draw the Lewis structures and predict the formula for the following ionic compounds. Name the ions formed and draw their symbols. a) magnesium & fluorine b) lithium & bromine c) rubidium & chlorine d) calcium & oxygen e) aluminum & oxygen