2 Ionization Energy What is “ionization energy”? Answer: the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atomThis means that energy is required to form positive ions.Energy is released when a negative ion is formed.
3 Na + ionization energy → Na+ + e- Cl + e- → Cl- + energy Examples: Na & ClNa + ionization energy → Na+ + e-Cl + e- → Cl- + energyPositive ions don’t have special names, but negative ions have their endings changed to –ide.Oxygen ion = oxideNitrogen ion = ??Chlorine ion = ???
4 Practice Write the formula for its ion formation and if energy is released or absorbed CesiumMagnesiumAluminumCarbonAstatineOxygenBromine
5 Ionic BondBond in which 1 or more electrons from one atom are removed & attached to another atom.Results in positive & negative ions which attract each otherUsually occurs between metals & nonmetalsBinary ionic compounds contain ____ different elements.Two
6 Ionic BondIf an ionic bond forms between metals and the nonmetal oxygen than an oxide forms.Most other ionic compounds are called salts
7 Example: Ca + F Which element will GAIN electrons to form an ion? How many will it gain?Write the formula for the ion formation?What is the name of the ion?How many will the other element lose when it forms an ion?Write the formula for the ion formation.
8 We determined that calcium loses 2 electrons, and fluorine gains 1. If a fluoride ion can only take 1 of calcium’s electrons, what will calcium do with the other electron it loses?Answer: It will look for another ion to take it.So how many fluoride ions does each calcium ion want to bond with?Answer: 2
9 Mathematically1 Ca ion (+2) F ion (-1) = 1(+2) + 2(-1) = 0Ca ion F ionFind the least common multiple of the 2 oxidation numbers – in this case, 2.The charges must balance so the whole compound is neutral (total charge = 0)!The formula will have 1 Ca and 2 F ions, so it will be CaF2.
10 Formula UnitThe formula obtained is called the formula unit: the simplest ratio of the ions in an ionic compound.Its name will be metal + nonmetal-ide, or calcium fluoride.
11 Formation of an Ionic Bond 3 ways to show the formation of an ionic compound:Electron configurationOrbital notationElectron-dot structure1. [Ne] 3s1 + [Ne] 3s23p5 → [Ne] + [Ar] + nrgWhat happens to the [Ne] 3s1?What happens to the [Ne] 3s23p5?Why is there energy released?
12 Electron-dot structure 2.Orbital notationWrite the orbital notations for both Na and Cl.What do you think will happen to the extra electron in the 3s orbital of Na?What will the new orbital notations look like?Electron-dot structureWrite the electron-dot structures for both Na and Cl.Write the electron-dot structures of the ions formed.
15 Monatomic Ion A one-atom ion Ex: Mg2+, N3- Polyatomic ion?? Ions that are made up of more than one atomEx: NO2-, OH-
16 Polyatomic IonsPolyatomic ions act as a single unit (or ion), so rules for writing formulas for ionic compounds including polyatomic are the same as the rules you have followed for writing formulas for binary compounds.
17 Examples NH4+1 + Cl-1 (ammonium + chloride) Are the charges balanced?So how would you write the formula unit?What is its name?Ca PO4-3 (calcium + phosphate)Use least common multiple method to determine the formula unit.
18 Common Polyatomic Ions See Table 8-6, p.224, for a list of common polyatomic ionsWrite the correct formula for the ionic compound composed of the following pairs of ions.Sodium & NitrateCalcium & ChlorateAluminum & carbonatePotassium & chromateMagnesium & carbonate
19 OxyanionA polyatomic ion composed of an element, usually a nonmetal, bonded to one or more oxygen atoms.Many contain the same nonmetal & have the same charges but differ in the # of oxygen atoms.
20 OxyanionsThe ion with more oxygen atoms is named using the root of the nonmetal plus the suffix –ate.The ion with fewer oxygen atoms is named using the root of the nonmetal plus the suffix –ite.For Example:NO3- = nitrate NO2- = nitrite
21 Rules for Naming Ionic Compounds Name the cation first and the anion secondCations use the element nameAnions add –ide to the element nameGroup 1A & Group 2A metals have only one oxidation number; Transition metals and metals on the right side of the periodic table often have more than one oxidation #.
22 The oxidation # of the cation is written as a roman numeral in parentheses after the name. EX: Fe2+ and O2- = FeO Iron(II) OxideFe2O3 = iron (III) oxide
23 Rules Continued5. If a compound contains a polyatomic ion, name the ion. EX: NaOH = sodium hydroxide