4 What is Ergonomics Greek Translation: Ergo =work Nomics= natural laws ofLiterally means “The laws of work”
5 Definition“Ergonomics is the art and science of designing workplaces to match the capabilities and limitations of the human body. ““Ergonomics is matching the job to the worker”The science of designing the job to fit the worker, instead of forcing the worker to fit the jobIt is how the human body performs work.It studies how muscles and bones work together, finding ways to prevent muscular skeletal disorders which cause pain and strain
6 2 Categories of Ergonomic Factors EnvironmentalPhysicalEnvironmental: effect hearing, vision, and general discomfort and healthExamples: sick building syndromePoor indoor air quality/ excessive noise/ improper light/ temperature extremesPhysical: physical stressors place pressure or stress on parts of the body (joints, muscles nerves, tendons, bones)These injuries are sometimes refered to as cumulative trauma disorders or repetitive strainWork place injuries show up everywhereHands, wrists, elbows &shouldersBacks, hips, necks, knees and anklesMuscle strains, tendonitis, carpal tunnel
7 4 Ergonomic Risk Factors Repetitive ActionContact StressAwkward PosturesVisual FatigueRepetition: actions you do over and over againAwkward postures: anything that puts you in an awkward position for any length of timeContact stress: prolonged pressure on any part of your bodyVisual fatigue: eye strain
8 Repetitive ActionThe same action repeated many times over an extended period causing trauma to the effected tissueKeystrokesMouse movementsFilingStamping papersRepetition causes wear and tear to the tissue and Without time to heal, those tissues become inflamed and cause pain ie. Carpal tunnelMotions that would not result in injury if only performed once
9 Reduce the risk Take stretch breaks Alternate tasks Good posture Light touch*Beware of cumulative risks
10 Awkward Postures Positions that involve bending twisting or reaching. Makes muscles, tendons and joints work harder then necessaryIncreases potential for traumaExamples:Bending: leaning forward towards your screenTwisting: reading from copy while keyingReaching: long stretch to reach mouse or phoneAwkward postures can cause pain because you tend to assume them frequently or hold them for a long timeWorkstation risks: think back to your workstationDoes your chair fit in front of your monitor & keyboardDo your legs and knees fit comfortably under your work stationBasic principle of a proper posture is to maintain the natural curve of the back.Without proper support it is easy to slumpYour back likes a straight chair, with support for the lower spine. You can use a small pillow or rolled up towelWe will learn how to properly set up work station in a moment
11 Contact Stress Prolonged pressure on part of the body Compresses nerves and blood vesselsKneeling to fileResting wrists while typingNarrow chairThese risks may be hard to recognize and are often missed until something starts to hurt or go nub3 major offenders at desk topFront of work surface that holds keyboard and mouseThe area at the front of your mouse where your palm hits the work surfaceThe edge of your chair seat
12 Visual Fatigue Stress on eyes Factors effecting visual acuity Eyes: visual acuityLighting: glare, windows, room lightingMonitor properties: character size, color, brightnessMonitor position: distance, height and angleVisual fatigue is related to other risk factorsIe. Awkward head posture can lead to visual fatigue or visual fatigue can cause you to assume awkward postures.
13 Reduce risk Eye Strain Remember the 20/20/20 rule Every 20 minutes Look away 20 feetFor 20 seconds
14 Work Smart Workstations You can reduce ergonomic risks with good work station set upYou spend a lot of time at your work stationIf you set up to minimize you ergonomic risksand work smart , you will make your work time more comfortable and productive
15 Desk organization & Positioning 1st look at your work stationChair should be positioned directly in front of monitor and keyboard
16 Guidelines for work reach zones Primary zone:Frequent reaches (approximately 360mm)i.e.: phone, calculator, mouseSecondary zone:Infrequent reaches (approx. 500mm)i.e.: pens, paper, filesTertiary zone:Occasional reaches (approximately 700mm)i.e.: binders, books, picturesWhen you are arranging items on a desk how do you decide what should be placed near and what should be placed far?Document holder: if you work from a copy set up a document holder at the same hieght & distance as your monitor where you won’t have to twist your neck to read it.WHERE R THE THINGS YOU USE MOST!
17 Sitting Posture 1. YOUR THIGHS SHOULD BE PARALLEL TO THE FLOOR Adjust the height and/or angle of the chair seat.Now look at how YOU and your computer fit together in the work space
18 Sitting Posture2. YOUR FEET SHOULD LAY FLAT ON THE FLOOR OR ON A FOOTRESTAdjust the height of your chair seat so that it is below or at knee height when standing.
19 Sitting Posture3. BACK OF THE KNEES SHOULD BE CLEAR OF THE FRONT EDGE OF THE SEATAdjust the depth of the chair seat so that you can easily place your fist behind your knee.
20 Sitting Posture4. YOUR BACK: LOWER AND MID-BACK SHOULD BE WELL SUPPORTEDAdjust the height, tension, and angle of the backrest, to ensure the lumbar support is positioned at your waist.
21 Sitting Posture5. YOUR FOREARMS SHOULD BE SUPPORTED AND YOUR SHOULDERS RELAXED AT ALL TIMESThe height of and distance between your armrests should allow freedom of movement for your forearms when performing tasks, yet provide support for them during rest periods or when using your mouse. Avoid hunching your shoulders and ensure that the elbows/upper arms remain close to your torso.
22 Sitting Posture6. YOUR ELBOWS SHOULD BE AT APPROXIMATELY THE SAME HEIGHT AS THE KEYBOARDAdjust the height of your keyboard tray or work surface so the keyboard is at the height of your elbows.
23 Sitting Posture7. YOUR WRISTS SHOULD BE STRAIGHT AT ALL TIMES AND YOUR HANDS IN LINE WITH YOUR FOREARMSAdjust the angle and height of the keyboard tray or work surface to ensure straight wrists. If your keyboard tray or work surface is not adjustable, adjust your seat to ensure straight wrists. You will need to use a footrest if you have raised the seat and your feet are not flat and well supported on the floor.
24 Sitting Posture8. THE MONITOR SHOULD BE AT A COMFORTABLE READING DISTANCE AND HEIGHTThe viewing distance should be within 16” to 29” (40cm-74cm). About one arm’s length. The monitor height should allow the neck to be in a neutral position when looking at the top row of text on the screen.Source: Health Canada, Occupational Health and Safety.
25 Optimizing Monitor Adjust character size Adjust brightness and contrastAdjust refresh rate: screen flicker can cause visual fatigue.When you have everything positioned correctly, you may have to tweek your monitor settings to comfortably read the screen at the recommended inch distancesHighest possible refreshrate is the best.
26 Other Considerations Phone: Avoid cradling Hold phone in non dominant hand or hands freeRecommend using a headset if >34% of day is on the phone
27 Keyboard The keyboard should rest flat Wrist should be neutral Do not rest wrist/palm on edgeDesk or keyboard tray?Wrist rest?Using the tilt feature on your keyboard often leads to awkward postures in the wrist. The keyboard should not be tilted to any significant degree.Resting wrist or palm on the edge of the desk or rest pad will cause awkward postures and local contact stress – hindering nerve conduction and or blood flow.A keyboard tray can be useful, although not necessary. If using one, consider using a tray that is long enough to accommodate a mouse. A tray will be necessary if your desk depth does not accommodate the monitor and keyboard with proper viewing distance or if your chair does not go high enough to accommodate proper upper extremity postures and the desk cannot be lowered.The rest pad should only be used when resting - not while keyboarding as this often leads to awkward postures and contact stress.Keyboard should be slightly lower than normal desk height.Use an adjustable keyboard tray. If that is noit low enough, try raising your chair…..prevent legs dangling by using a foot rest.Home row of keys at elbow level.
29 Other Considerations Printer/ Scanner Place at a distance to necessitate a walk or change in posture.MousePlacing mouse at same height of keyboard and as close as possible will minimize postural stress
30 5 Minute Self Assessment What is the distance from my eyes to the monitor?What position are my wrist in while typing?What parts of my body are touching my chair?What are my feet doing?Imagine you are looking at yourself from above. Where are your ears in relation to your shoulders and monitor?5 questions that can help you monitor yourself throughout your dayShoulders should be aligned with keyboard & monitor and ears should be directly above shoulders so the wt of the head is balanced