# Newton’s Laws of Motion. Motion and Speed Vocabulary Words  Motion  Position  Reference point  Distance  Displacement  Speed  Average speed 

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Newton’s Laws of Motion

Motion and Speed

Vocabulary Words  Motion  Position  Reference point  Distance  Displacement  Speed  Average speed  Velocity * Copy down words; define them for homework!

Activities  NJ Ask Coach Lesson 6  P48-52  Discussion question and #1-4

Motion  The process of changing from one position to another

Speed  How fast an object changes position  Speed= Distance/Time

Calculating Speed  Julie ran from her house on Ridge Road to Lincoln School; which is 2 miles away. It took her 20 minutes to get there; what was her speed in miles per minute?  2 miles/20minutes=0.1m/ min

Velocity  Describes an object’s speed AND its direction

Forces and Motion

Vocabulary  Force  gravity  newton  net force  Balanced forces  Unbalanced forces  Acceleration  Friction  Air resistance  Mass  Momentum

Activities  NJ Ask Coach Lesson 7  P. 52-54  Discussion question and #1-4

Forces  A force is a push or a pull  Measured in newtons

Gravity  The force that exists between two objects that have mass, attracting them together

What is Friction?  Static  Sliding  Rolling  Fluid  A fluid is any matter in which the molecules can move freely i.e. air, water, etc.

Four Types of Friction  The force that occurs when two objects rub together

Gravity  Force that exists between any two objects that have mass

Gravitational Relationships

Free Fall  Free fall- the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity  In free fall, the force of gravity is an unbalanced force, which causes an object to accelerate

Free Fall  all objects in free fall accelerate at the same rate regardless of their masses!

Weight  Mass- the amount of matter in an object  Weight- measure of the force of gravity acting on an object  Weight=mass x acceleration  Gravity on Earth is 9.8m/sec 2

Calculating Weight Example:  Calculate the mass of an object weighing 10kg: 10kg x 9.8m/s 2

Momentum  A property that a moving object has because of its mass and velocity  Momentum = Mass x Velocity

Calculating Momentum  What is the momentum of a 5kg bowling ball rolling down a lane at a velocity of 7m/s? =5kg x 7 m/s =35kg x m/s

Law of Conservation of Momentum  The total amount of momentum in a group of interacting objects does not change unless outside forces act on the objects

Newton’s Laws of Motion Isaac Newton not only studied Physics, but was the inventor of Calculus and one of History’s most famous scientists

Newton’s 1 st Law of Motion  An object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will continue to move in the same direction and the same speed unless acted upon by a force. “

1 st Law Example What are some examples of forces that might stop the object from moving? To make it move?

Inertia  The tendency of a still or moving object to resist changes in motion

Newton’s Second Law of Motion  An object acted on by a net force will accelerate in the direction of the force. The object’s acceleration equals the net force divided by the mass.  Acceleration= Force/mass  Force= mass x acceleration

2 nd Law Example  A grocery cart that weighs 30 kg with a net force of 60N acting on it will accelerate at 2 m/s 2 because … acceleration = force/mass 60N/30kg= 2 m/s 2

Newton’s Third Law of Motion  For every action force exerted on an object, the object will exert an equal and opposite reaction.

3 rd Law Example  When you are swimming and you pull your arms through the water in one direction, your body moves in the opposite direction

Energy Energy, Work, Power and Heat

Vocabulary  Work  Joule  Energy  Kinetic energy  Potential energy  Power

Activities  NJ Ask Coach Lesson 8  P.55-59  Discussion question and #1-4

Work  Work- result of a force moving an object over a distance  The unit of measurement for work is a joule  Work= Force x Distance

Potential vs. Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Kinetic Energy

Power  Power is the amount of work done in a period of time  Power= Work/Time  Remember: work is measured in joules and time is measured in seconds

Energy  Energy- the ability to do work or cause change  Kinetic energy- the energy an object has because it is moving  Potential energy- stored energy

Thermal Energy  Thermal energy, or heat, is the total energy of the movement of molecules in a substance

Heat Transfer  There are three ways heat can be transferred:  Convection  Conduction  Radiation  Radiation is the transfer of energy via electromagnetic waves

Conduction  Conduction is a situation where the heat source and heat sink are connected by matter.

Temperature vs. Heat Temperature  Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy level of a substance Heat  Heat is the total energy associated with the motion of molecules

Measuring Temperature  Temperatur e can be measured in…  Fahrenheit  Celsius  Kelvin

Fahrenheit  Fahrenheit is the classic English system of measuring temperatures.  Water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit  Water boils at 212 degrees

Celsius  Celsius is the modern system of measuring temperature.  The freezing point of water is 0 degrees Celsius  the boiling point is 100 degrees Celsius

Formula  Celsius=(Fahrenheit Temperature -32)*5/9

Thermal Expansion  Thermal expansion is when gases expand as the temperature increases  Think about it…  Have you ever been hot and sticky and felt that your clothes seemed tighter or that your hand were swelling?  This is an example of thermal expansion

Contraction  The opposite of expansion is contraction  A substance will contract when heat is removed  If you remove enough heat from a gas it will become a liquid  Liquids can turn into solids with further cooling

The End!!

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