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Bell Ringer Sports announcers will occasionally say that a person is accelerating if he/she is moving fast. Why is this not an accurate description of what acceleration is? Sports announcers will occasionally say that a person is accelerating if he/she is moving fast. Why is this not an accurate description of what acceleration is?

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Objectives Define acceleration in words and with an equation Define acceleration in words and with an equation Identify positive and negative acceleration by analyzing a graph Identify positive and negative acceleration by analyzing a graph Calculate acceleration with the use of an equation and graph Calculate acceleration with the use of an equation and graph Define and apply the force of gravity Define and apply the force of gravity

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Change in Velocity Each time you take a step you are changing the velocity of your body. Each time you take a step you are changing the velocity of your body. You are probably most familiar with the velocity changes of a moving bus or car. You are probably most familiar with the velocity changes of a moving bus or car. The rate at which velocity (speed or direction) changes occur is called acceleration. The rate at which velocity (speed or direction) changes occur is called acceleration.

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Acceleration= final velocity- starting velocity Acceleration= final velocity- starting velocity time time Change in velocity = final – starting velocity velocity Change in velocity = final – starting velocity velocity Acceleration= change in velocity Acceleration= change in velocity time time

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Acceleration = Velocity (final) - Velocity (original) time A car traveling at 60 mph accelerates to 90 mph in 3 seconds. What is the car’s acceleration? = 90 mph - 60 mph 3 seconds = 30 mph 3 seconds = 10 mph/second

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Positive acceleration Negative acceleration

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Acceleration = Velocity (final) - Velocity (original) time A car traveling at 60 mph slams on the breaks to avoid hitting a deer. The car comes to a safe stop 6 seconds after applying the breaks. What is the car’s acceleration? = 0 mph - 60 mph 6 seconds = - 60 mph 6 seconds = - 10 miles per hour per second

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- A constant acceleration produces a straight line or linear slope (rise/run). - The slope of a non- linear velocity-time graph (rise/run) will predict an objects instantaneous acceleration. a = v/t - A constant acceleration produces a straight line or linear slope (rise/run). - The slope of a non- linear velocity-time graph (rise/run) will predict an objects instantaneous acceleration. a = v/t Calculate the instantaneous acceleration of the graph: a = v/t a = 4m/s / 1s a = 4m/s 2

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Free fall The constant acceleration of an object moving only under the force of gravity is "g". The constant acceleration of an object moving only under the force of gravity is "g". The acceleration caused by gravity is 10 m/s 2 The acceleration caused by gravity is 10 m/s 2 If there was no air, all objects would fall at the same speed If there was no air, all objects would fall at the same speed Doesn’t depend on mass Doesn’t depend on mass After 1 second falling at 10 m/s After 1 second falling at 10 m/s After 2 seconds 20 m/s After 2 seconds 20 m/s 3 seconds 30 m/s 3 seconds 30 m/s

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Galileo 1600’s 1600’s Studied how things fell Studied how things fell Didn’t have a good clock Didn’t have a good clock Rolled balls down an inclined plane Rolled balls down an inclined plane Found that the speed increased as it rolled down the ramp Found that the speed increased as it rolled down the ramp

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Galileo t = 0 t = 1 second t = 2 seconds t = 3 seconds Acceleration= change in velocity time time

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Galileo u Same things happen when things fall u Didn’t drop things from Tower of Pisa

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Falling Air resistance will increase as it falls faster Air resistance will increase as it falls faster An upward force on the object An upward force on the object Eventually gravity will balance with air resistance Eventually gravity will balance with air resistance Reaches terminal velocity - highest speed reached by a falling object. Reaches terminal velocity - highest speed reached by a falling object.

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Terminal velocity Force of gravity is constant Force of gravity is constant u air resistance increases as you speed up u until the force is equal u Equal forces, no acceleration u constant velocity terminal velocity

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Positive Velocity and Positive Acceleration

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Positive Velocity and Negative Acceleration

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Negative Velocity and Negative Acceleration

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Negative Velocity and Positive Acceleration

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