3 Writing Vocabularystory grammar addresses the elements of a story. These include but are not limited to: the title, author, setting, main characters, conflict and resolution, events, and conclusion. Some additional elements that may be specified under "events" are: the initiating event, internal response, attempt, consequence, and reaction.
4 Writing VocabularyGrammar-the structure and system of a language, or of languages in general, usually considered to consist of syntax and morphology.Syntax-refers directly to the rules and principles that govern the sentence structure of any individual language.Morphology- is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of morphemes and other units of meaning in a language like words and parts of speech.
5 Writing VocabularyMechanics- The mechanics of writing specifies the established conventions for words that you use in your documentation.Conventions- include spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, and paragraphing.
6 WritingIt is common sense to realize that for students to improve in writing, they should write for at least 30 minutes a day at least of four days a week.
7 Secretary vs. AuthorLike the phonic vs. whole language debate, teaching writing had its versionFree writing versus grammar and mechanics
8 Secretary vs. AuthorThe author is concerned with matters of content, including organization and originality, levels of dictionSecretary –concerned with mechanics of writing- concerned with the revision processWith students with disabilities, handwriting and spelling creates a great difficulty.
9 Secretary vs. AuthorAmerican schools are largely concerned with the secretarial concerns/ the mechanics of writingVery little research that shows this method alone increases writing abilityLikewise, just using a free writing approach shows little benefit
10 Secretary vs. AuthorSchools need to use both, called Parallel Framework Instruction
11 Question- Discuss in your groups Word processing programs such as word or pages, do they help writing or do they create more problemsWhat are the pros and cons
13 Collins writingThe Collins Writing Program presents a model for writing-across-the-curriculum and writing to learn. Founder Dr. John Collins draws from extensive research and twenty years experience working with teachers and students to create a practical program that requires students to engage in curriculum content as they improve writing, thinking, listening, and speaking skills
14 Collins writingA Writing to Learn approach helps students explore, engage in, and apply new information as they write. The Collins Program is designed to, “help teachers in all content areas achieve their goals by requiring students to think on paper. This is accomplished by using frequent, usually short, writing assignments to increase students’ involvement in lessons, check on their understanding of concepts, or promote their thinking about content.” (Collins) Students may be asked to:
15 Collins writing“List relevant information they “know” about a new concept or topic just before it is presented to them.Put a concept from the text or another source into their own words – to “translate” it or summarize it.Make a connection between a concept from class and something else they know about or have experienced in their own lives.Explain how ideas are similar (despite their differences) or different (despite their similarities).” (Collins)
16 Collins writingDr. Collins strives to provide a practical framework where students are challenged to do more writing and thinking without overwhelming the teacher with the impossible task of evaluating every paper for everything every time. His program defines five types of writing assignments with clear methods of evaluation.
17 Collins writing Type 1:Capture Ideas Type 1 writing gets ideas on paper -- it's brainstorming. Type 1 is timed and requires a minimum number of items or lines to be generated. Questions and/or guesses are permitted.One draft Outcomes are evaluated with a check () or a minus (-)
18 Collins writing Type 2:Respond Correctly Type 2 writing shows that the writer knows something about a topic or has thought about the topic. It is a correct answer to a specific question.One draft Graded as a quiz
19 Collins writing Type 3:Edit for Focus Correction Areas Type 3 writing has substantive content and meets up to three specific standards called "focus correction areas" (FCA). Revision and editing are done on the original.one draft (save) Read out loud and reviewed to see if the draft completes the assignment, is easy to read and meets standards set for the focus correction areas.
20 Collins writingType 4:Peer Edit for Focus Correction Areas Type 4 writing is Type 3 writing that is read aloud by someone else.Two drafts (save) Writing is critiqued by a peer and revised by the author
21 Collins writing Type 5:Publish Type 5 writing is of publishable quality.Multiple drafts (save) Published work
22 Collins writingThe Focus Correction Area (FCA) is an element of this program that encourages students to improve targeted writing skills. Teachers systematically ask students to edit their writing for three FCAs for each Type Three writing assignment. Examples of Focus Correction Areas include:
23 Collins writing FCA examples “Use of a clear topic sentence and a strong conclusionExplain ideas with sufficient/relevant detailsUse content specific vocabularyVary sentence beginnings/lengthsUse end marks and commas correctlyInclude graphic illustrations with labels” (Collins)
24 Collins writing FCA examples The Cumulative Writing Folder provides a structure for classroom management. This folder is a valuable aid in organizing Type Four Writing, where peer editing and revision takes place. It includes a teacher comment key, tips for first and final drafts, and a place to record and reflect on assignments.
25 Collins writing FCA examples The Collins Writing Program promotes the idea that writing improves learning. The National Commission on Writing agrees that, “Writing is not simply a way for students to demonstrate what they know. It is a way to help them understand what they know. At its best, writing is learning.
26 Big Ideas and WritingThe writing Process is probably the most accepted practice for writing- It consist of four stepsPlanningDraftingEditing/revisingPublishing
27 Big Ideas and WritingPlanning is an important step that diverse learners often struggle with. They often need help in organizing their thoughtsPlanning includes, brainstorming, and organizing ideasTools that can be used include, group brainstormingOutline models ( scaffolds)Graphic organizers
28 Big Ideas and Writing Some types of Text Structures- include DescriptiveCause and effectCompare and contrastStorySequenceProblem solution
29 Big Ideas and WritingA story Text Structures would include these parts includeProtagonistA crisisDeveloping incidentsresolution
30 Big Ideas and WritingOften text books focus on many story structures a year. Research has shown if you focus on two, and model them and teach them thoroughly, students will learn and use them more effectively
31 Big Ideas and WritingPeer interaction – is an effective tool in many subject areas but has shown to be very effective for improving composition performanceThis is different than peer editing- each child has the chance to author, edit and revise a group assignment
32 Big Ideas and WritingMorphology is and effective big idea with editingAlso sentence combining and manipulation is also effective (will show you later)
33 Writing and Conspicuous strategies When selecting strategies, they have to be intermediate in generality, they cannot be to specific or to generalThink before you write is to generalList everything you saw , ( when planning a descriptive essay) To specific an would overwhelm the writer
34 Writing and Conspicuous strategies Sentence manipulationGood for helping with pronouns, subject verb agreementExample ( pronoun)John gave Mary and I/me a new bookWhat is the correct pronoun?One approach is to separate the sentence into twoJohn gave Mary a new bookJohn gave me/I a new book
35 Writing and Conspicuous strategies Sentence manipulationExample ( subject verb agreement)None of the boys was/were on timeWhat is the correct agreementOne approach is to separate the sentence into twoNot one of the boys was/were on timeNot one was on time
36 Writing and Conspicuous strategies Mediated Scaffolding- is providing many kinds of assistance that students receive as they move for a deeper understanding of what is being taughtIt is provide as –needed basis and is gradually diminished over time.Provides a strategy for accomplishing the goal , but for self regulation as well
38 Writing and Conspicuous strategies Several types of scaffolded support existProcedural facilitators is one example- this requires students have some underlying competencies- add forms that walk a child through a processThink sheets are one example
39 Writing and Conspicuous strategies Scaffolding is an excellent strategy to pair with modeling or with a group activityAn easy way is to start building a scaffold with the final product in mind.Next are a few examples
46 Strategic Integration It is important to not teach a concept in isolationWriting leads itself to integration with reading. It certainly can be integrate into all content areasResearch shows that poor readers are usually poor readers
47 Strategic Integration Writing naturally integrates with spelling, grammar
48 Primed background knowledge Primed background knowledge is important in all subjects, but not as crucial in many writing areasLearning a given text structure is not dependent on a large base of foundation knowledgeMust understand grammar usageCan give pretest for some of this information
49 Judicious ReviewVery little research done on review in relation to writingThere is a lot of review about the positive effects of review in all other subjectsDaily Oral Language is a common method for review.
50 Judicious ReviewWhen you use mediated scaffolding review is somewhat natural,Each week or step you review the concept, but expert more from the studentsTeaching a text structure thoroughly can take a long timeKeep review varied, this allows for greater generalization of the conceptsThe review should include many different types of examples
51 Designing Instructional tools Instruction should focus on a few text structures a yearInstruction should emphasize the stages in the writing processStrategies should not be to general or specific
52 Designing Instructional tools Using story startersWhat is the boy running from?
53 Designing Instructional tools What did this child just find?Why is this man chasing the child on the bike?