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Presentation on theme: "SESSION 2.2."— Presentation transcript:


2 Writing Vocabulary Grammar Mechanics Story Grammar Syntax conventions

3 Writing Vocabulary story grammar addresses the elements of a story. These include but are not limited to: the title, author, setting, main characters, conflict and resolution, events, and conclusion. Some additional elements that may be specified under "events" are: the initiating event, internal response, attempt, consequence, and reaction.

4 Writing Vocabulary Grammar-the structure and system of a language, or of languages in general, usually considered to consist of syntax and morphology. Syntax-refers directly to the rules and principles that govern the sentence structure of any individual language. Morphology- is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of morphemes and other units of meaning in a language like words and parts of speech.

5 Writing Vocabulary Mechanics- The mechanics of writing specifies the established conventions for words that you use in your documentation. Conventions- include spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, and paragraphing.

6 Writing It is common sense to realize that for students to improve in writing, they should write for at least 30 minutes a day at least of four days a week.

7 Secretary vs. Author Like the phonic vs. whole language debate, teaching writing had its version Free writing versus grammar and mechanics

8 Secretary vs. Author The author is concerned with matters of content, including organization and originality, levels of diction Secretary –concerned with mechanics of writing- concerned with the revision process With students with disabilities, handwriting and spelling creates a great difficulty.

9 Secretary vs. Author American schools are largely concerned with the secretarial concerns/ the mechanics of writing Very little research that shows this method alone increases writing ability Likewise, just using a free writing approach shows little benefit

10 Secretary vs. Author Schools need to use both, called Parallel Framework Instruction

11 Question- Discuss in your groups
Word processing programs such as word or pages, do they help writing or do they create more problems What are the pros and cons

12 Collins writing

13 Collins writing The Collins Writing Program presents a model for writing-across-the-curriculum and writing to learn. Founder Dr. John Collins draws from extensive research and twenty years experience working with teachers and students to create a practical program that requires students to engage in curriculum content as they improve writing, thinking, listening, and speaking skills

14 Collins writing A Writing to Learn approach helps students explore, engage in, and apply new information as they write. The Collins Program is designed to, “help teachers in all content areas achieve their goals by requiring students to think on paper. This is accomplished by using frequent, usually short, writing assignments to increase students’ involvement in lessons, check on their understanding of concepts, or promote their thinking about content.” (Collins) Students may be asked to:

15 Collins writing “List relevant information they “know” about a new concept or topic just before it is presented to them. Put a concept from the text or another source into their own words – to “translate” it or summarize it. Make a connection between a concept from class and something else they know about or have experienced in their own lives. Explain how ideas are similar (despite their differences) or different (despite their similarities).” (Collins)

16 Collins writing Dr. Collins strives to provide a practical framework where students are challenged to do more writing and thinking without overwhelming the teacher with the impossible task of evaluating every paper for everything every time. His program defines five types of writing assignments with clear methods of evaluation.

17 Collins writing Type 1:Capture Ideas
Type 1 writing gets ideas on paper -- it's brainstorming. Type 1 is timed and requires a minimum number of items or lines to be generated. Questions and/or guesses are permitted. One draft Outcomes are evaluated with a check () or a minus (-)

18 Collins writing Type 2:Respond Correctly
Type 2 writing shows that the writer knows something about a topic or has thought about the topic. It is a correct answer to a specific question. One draft Graded as a quiz

19 Collins writing Type 3:Edit for Focus Correction Areas
Type 3 writing has substantive content and meets up to three specific standards called "focus correction areas" (FCA). Revision and editing are done on the original. one draft (save) Read out loud and reviewed to see if the draft completes the assignment, is easy to read and meets standards set for the focus correction areas.

20 Collins writing Type 4:Peer Edit for Focus Correction Areas Type 4 writing is Type 3 writing that is read aloud by someone else. Two drafts (save) Writing is critiqued by a peer and revised by the author

21 Collins writing Type 5:Publish
Type 5 writing is of publishable quality. Multiple drafts (save) Published work

22 Collins writing The Focus Correction Area (FCA) is an element of this program that encourages students to improve targeted writing skills. Teachers systematically ask students to edit their writing for three FCAs for each Type Three writing assignment. Examples of Focus Correction Areas include:

23 Collins writing FCA examples
“Use of a clear topic sentence and a strong conclusion Explain ideas with sufficient/relevant details Use content specific vocabulary Vary sentence beginnings/lengths Use end marks and commas correctly Include graphic illustrations with labels” (Collins)

24 Collins writing FCA examples
The Cumulative Writing Folder provides a structure for classroom management. This folder is a valuable aid in organizing Type Four Writing, where peer editing and revision takes place. It includes a teacher comment key, tips for first and final drafts, and a place to record and reflect on assignments.

25 Collins writing FCA examples
The Collins Writing Program promotes the idea that writing improves learning. The National Commission on Writing agrees that, “Writing is not simply a way for students to demonstrate what they know. It is a way to help them understand what they know. At its best, writing is learning.

26 Big Ideas and Writing The writing Process is probably the most accepted practice for writing- It consist of four steps Planning Drafting Editing/revising Publishing

27 Big Ideas and Writing Planning is an important step that diverse learners often struggle with. They often need help in organizing their thoughts Planning includes, brainstorming, and organizing ideas Tools that can be used include, group brainstorming Outline models ( scaffolds) Graphic organizers

28 Big Ideas and Writing Some types of Text Structures- include
Descriptive Cause and effect Compare and contrast Story Sequence Problem solution

29 Big Ideas and Writing A story Text Structures would include these parts include Protagonist A crisis Developing incidents resolution

30 Big Ideas and Writing Often text books focus on many story structures a year. Research has shown if you focus on two, and model them and teach them thoroughly, students will learn and use them more effectively

31 Big Ideas and Writing Peer interaction – is an effective tool in many subject areas but has shown to be very effective for improving composition performance This is different than peer editing- each child has the chance to author, edit and revise a group assignment

32 Big Ideas and Writing Morphology is and effective big idea with editing Also sentence combining and manipulation is also effective (will show you later)

33 Writing and Conspicuous strategies
When selecting strategies, they have to be intermediate in generality, they cannot be to specific or to general Think before you write is to general List everything you saw , ( when planning a descriptive essay) To specific an would overwhelm the writer

34 Writing and Conspicuous strategies
Sentence manipulation Good for helping with pronouns, subject verb agreement Example ( pronoun) John gave Mary and I/me a new book What is the correct pronoun? One approach is to separate the sentence into two John gave Mary a new book John gave me/I a new book

35 Writing and Conspicuous strategies
Sentence manipulation Example ( subject verb agreement) None of the boys was/were on time What is the correct agreement One approach is to separate the sentence into two Not one of the boys was/were on time Not one was on time

36 Writing and Conspicuous strategies
Mediated Scaffolding- is providing many kinds of assistance that students receive as they move for a deeper understanding of what is being taught It is provide as –needed basis and is gradually diminished over time. Provides a strategy for accomplishing the goal , but for self regulation as well


38 Writing and Conspicuous strategies
Several types of scaffolded support exist Procedural facilitators is one example- this requires students have some underlying competencies- add forms that walk a child through a process Think sheets are one example

39 Writing and Conspicuous strategies
Scaffolding is an excellent strategy to pair with modeling or with a group activity An easy way is to start building a scaffold with the final product in mind. Next are a few examples







46 Strategic Integration
It is important to not teach a concept in isolation Writing leads itself to integration with reading. It certainly can be integrate into all content areas Research shows that poor readers are usually poor readers

47 Strategic Integration
Writing naturally integrates with spelling, grammar

48 Primed background knowledge
Primed background knowledge is important in all subjects, but not as crucial in many writing areas Learning a given text structure is not dependent on a large base of foundation knowledge Must understand grammar usage Can give pretest for some of this information

49 Judicious Review Very little research done on review in relation to writing There is a lot of review about the positive effects of review in all other subjects Daily Oral Language is a common method for review.

50 Judicious Review When you use mediated scaffolding review is somewhat natural, Each week or step you review the concept, but expert more from the students Teaching a text structure thoroughly can take a long time Keep review varied, this allows for greater generalization of the concepts The review should include many different types of examples

51 Designing Instructional tools
Instruction should focus on a few text structures a year Instruction should emphasize the stages in the writing process Strategies should not be to general or specific

52 Designing Instructional tools
Using story starters What is the boy running from?

53 Designing Instructional tools
What did this child just find? Why is this man chasing the child on the bike?

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