Writing Process 1. Enjoy the Process a.You give yourself enough time to write up your work so that you are not always rushing to meet deadlines. b.You break writing tasks down into several stages with their own deadlines. This is easier than trying to write the perfect essay or report first time. c.You regard writing as a craft. Write several drafts. Aim to make each successive draft better than the previous one. d.Familiarize yourself with the style and conventions of your subject. Take pride in producing a piece of writing that is good by the standards of your own subject.
Writing Process 2. Define the task Spend time working out exactly what is required by the assignment title. The title will usually include a question that you must answer. Think through: Why was this particular title or assignment set? What are your tutors expecting that you will research? What issues do they intend you to cover? What theories, research and evidence do they expect you to refer to? What recent research or articles have been published on this subject? What methodologies are your tutors expecting you to use to demonstrate that you understand how to apply these?
Writing Process 3. Plan the assignment tasks Use the word limit and the assignment title to guide you in how much you need to read of each book and article recommended. Make a list of all the steps you need to take in order to finish the writing task. Work out how long each will take you. Each step will probably take longer than you think so plan for this. Write each task into your diary so you know when it will be done.
Writing Process 4. Make an outline plan for your writing It takes time to rewrite each draft of your writing. The more you have to change, the longer it will take. This makes it worthwhile to develop a detailed outline of your writing. If you do this straight onto the computer, you can reorganise the plan on screen, and progressively build on this until you complete your final draft.
Distinct stages of essay writing 1.Interpretation of the question 2.Research 3.Planning 4.Writing 5.Revision
Interpretation of the question Interpreting question saves time Gives clear idea of what the examiner is looking for in your work Better understanding of what can get you good marks Structure ▫Unravel the structure your essay should adopt The range of abilities ▫Reveal the range of abilities the examiner is expecting to see you use
Research Brainstorming ▫What you know about the issues the essay question raises. ▫The question you want your sources to answer. Reading skills ▫Need to be clear why you are reading a particular text ▫Skimming Making Notes
Planning 1. Structure Examiner should be able to navigate their way through your ideas and arguments 2.Your arguments Sufficient evidence to support your points. 3.Your writing Will help in avoiding the problem of pinning down your ideas clearly and then summoning up the words.
Putting Pen to Paper Style Introduction Paragraphs Using evidence Conclusions
Style A simple practical guide, keep in mind the following: Choose the short simple word over the long obscure one. Use the active voice. Rely on nouns and verbs to carry your meaning. Replace prepositional phrases with prepositions. Create fluency through transitions.
Introduction 1.The interpretation of the question (what is it getting at?) 2.The structure of your answer, the map the reader is going to follow. 3.Ensures examiners realize the relevance of your approach to the question.
Paragraphs First, introduce the topic of the paragraph with a clear topic sentence, which picks up an issue you have already analyzed in the introduction. Tying each paragraph into the introduction in this way will create a taut, cohesive and tightly reasoned essay. Whenever possible use a transition at the beginning of the topic sentence to create fluency between paragraphs, or to indicate the direction of your argument. Then develop the topic of the paragraph through analysis, criticism and discussion. Finally, complete the paragraph with evidence and examples that illustrate and support the points you have made.
Using evidence Support and illustrate your arguments Makes work not only interesting but gives real impact
Conclusion Give your opinions as long as they match the strength of your arguments. Summarize the main points. Pick up the theme of the introduction. Suggest wider implications. Predict future trends.
Top tips for Essay writing 1.Make sure that you are absolutely clear about the word length and completion date. 2.If you are unsure about the question, get guidance before you begin to prepare. 3.Get hold of the necessary background reading well in advance. 4.Markers are looking for you to express your own ideas, so get them in order. 5.Make sure that you have full references for all the books that you use. 6.Plan the whole essay in detail before you begin to write.
Technical writing Do: 1. Think about your readers and how they want you to approach the subject. 2. Write formally: use do not rather than don't, will not rather than won't. 3. Use words accurately, checking technical terms with your tutor or a professional journal. 4. Punctuate accurately, keeping sentences to a reasonable length. 5. Write reports in the past tense - they're about work you have done. 6. Write impersonally: it was recommended rather than I recommend.
Technical writing cont. Don't: 1. Address the reader directly as you, or refer to yourself as I or me. 2. Use abbreviations such as lab for laboratory or diag for diagram. 3. Add personal comments such as how you felt about the work. 4. Waffle: write concisely and keep to the point. 5. Write sentences of more than about 40 words in length