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Unit 4: Social Institutions

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1 Unit 4: Social Institutions
Ch 11: The Family Ch 12: Education Ch 13: Political and Economic Institutions Ch 14: Religion Ch 15: Sport

2 Ch 11 – The Family Family A group of people related by ______, blood, or _______. The family we’re _______ is our family of orientation. It provides children w/ a name, identity, + a heritage. It directs (orients) a child into their community + society. It also gives them an ______________ in the community. The family of procreation is established by __________. Marriage is a ______________ based on mutual rights + obligations. The family of procreation becomes the family of orientation for the ________________ from the marriage. The nuclear family is a family structure compose of one or both _____________________. The extended family consists of 2 or more _______ ____________ of the same family whose members share economic resources + live in the same household. It includes grandparents, aunts/uncles, cousins, etc…

3 Patterns of family structure
Patterns of behavior w/in a family relate to _________, authority, + place of ___________. Who inherits? Patrilineal: descent + inheritance are passed from the ________ to his male descendants. Matrilineal: descent + inheritance are passed from the ________ to her female descendants. Bilateral: descent + inheritance are passed equally through ________________. Who is in authority? Patriarchy: the ________ living in the household has authority over the rest of the family. Matriarchy: the ____________ living in the household has authority over the rest of the family. Equalitarian: authority is ________ b/w husband + wife. Where to couples live? Patrilocal: Lives w/ or near the _______ parents. Matrilocal: Lives w/ or near the ______ parents. Neolocal: Establishes a residence of _________.

4 Marriage arrangements
Marriage ceremonies take many forms, but they are all a ritual designed to communicate that a _____________________ + that any children born to them can legitimately inherit the family __________________. Monogamy is the marriage of one man to one woman (although increasingly this can include a monogamous gay/lesbian couple). This is the _________________ form of marriage in the world today. Polygamy is the marriage of a male or female to _____________________ at a time. Polygyny is the marriage of one man to 2 or more women at the same time. Rare, occurs legally in parts of Africa, India, + the _________. Polyandry is the marriage of one woman to 2 or more men at the same time. Men are usually ________. Only known to have been common in 3 societies – Tibet, Polynesia, + the hill peoples of India.

5 REQUIRED BY LAW OR NORM OPTIONAL Choosing a mate
All cultures have norms + laws about who may _________ whom. Exogamy refers to the mate-selection norms requiring individuals to marry someone ________________ or group (Exo means “________”). Ex. The incest taboo is a norm forbidding marriage b/w close relatives. What qualifies as incest ____ from one society to another. Endogamy refers to the mate-selection norms requiring individuals to marry someone w/in their own kind (Endo means “________”). Ex. Norms + laws requiring someone to marry w/in their own race, though these norms are becoming __________. If by ______________ + not a social norm other terms are used: Homogamy refers to the tendency to marry someone _____ to oneself. Ex. Same race, religion, socioeconomic status, etc… More common Heterogamy refers to a marriage b/w people w/ ________ social characteristics. Ex. Different race, religion, socioeconomic status, etc… ____________, but due to more integration + media exposure. REQUIRED BY LAW OR NORM OPTIONAL End Section 1

6 Sociological views of the family
Functionalism: Focuses on the ______ provided by families. _____________________ Provides socioemotional maintenance (providing acceptance + ________). W/o this, children would not develop normally – may develop low self-esteem, inability to express emotions, etc… Provides an orderly means for ________ Regulates _____________ – all societies have rules + norms governing sexual behaviors (incest, age limits, etc…) which are usually enforced by the family Transmits _______________ – provides economic resources to enter desired occupations as well as the values common in each social status Provides ________________ – they take care of what is needed to survive.

7 Conflict Theory: Focuses on ______________
Conflict Theory: Focuses on ______________. B/c most family structures throughout history have been patriarchal + patrilineal, women have been considered the _____________. So most families have a built-in gender inequality. Traditionally women provide free cooking, cleaning, + child-rearing, making it possible for men to work outside the home for wages + thus controlling the family finances. Women are kept dependent + ____________. Symbolic Interactionism: Focuses on _______ ____________ + they contribute to children’s socialization + development of a self-concept. Our 1st interactions are w/ our family + these interactions help children acquire _________ + social characteristics. These relationships are _________________ (ex. w/ marriage, having children, divorce, retirement, etc…). End Section 2

8 The nature of the American family
Although there are many ________ most families in America (no matter of what race or ethnicity) have the following characteristics: Nuclear (only one set of parents + children in a single home). Bilateral __________ (partners share in the decision making) Neolocal ___________

9 Marriage The marriage rate is the # of marriages per yr for every thousand members of the population. Why do people marry? _______ To enter a _________________ Advance a _________ Conformity/pressure from family +/or friends (over ___% of people in America get married) __________________ Partners chosen will be based on attributes such as class/caste, wealth, family reputation, appearance, etc… Etc…

10 Divorce The divorce rate is the # of divorces per yr for every thousand members of the population. Causes of divorce at the individual level include: The _____ of people when they get married (the it is, the less likely they are to get divorced). How many yrs the couple has been ________ (the it is, the less likely they are to get divorced). The nature + quality of the relationship. The more _________ + flexibility that exists b/w the partners the the chance of divorce

11 Notes from psychology (YES, you need to know these!)
About ½ of marriages end in divorce. Success or failure of a marriage basically stems from 2 things: How often they share intimate + ________________. How couples handle __________. Happy couples argue, but they: - _______ to each other. - Focus on SOLVING THE PROBLEM. - Show _________.

12 Causes of divorce at the ______________ include:
_______________ (people are more likely to get divorced when times are good + less likely when times are bad – probably b/c they’re more willing to take chances in good times, or can ____________). _________________ about divorce. Americans are less likely to _________ people who get divorced. The ____________________ of women – no longer have to stay w/ a male provider.

13 Domestic violence Early research on domestic violence made it appear limited mostly to _____________. This research was distorted b/c it came from ____ + public hospital records (wealthier people are more likely to avoid the police + go to private hospitals). Almost ¼ of adults in the US report having been physically abused as _______. Abuse includes a slap, shove, kicking, punching, biting, severe spanking, or threatening w/ a weapon. Estimates are that ¼ girls + 1/10 boys are victims of ________________ (in the home or outside). At least 4 million women are beaten by their husbands each yr. This # is _______________ partly b/c ¾ of spousal abuse takes place when a couple is _________ + most research is done on married couples.

14 Verbal + psychological abuse, like neglect, are also problems.
______________ is much more common than most people realize. Physical violence against husbands is almost equal to that against wives; HOWEVER, much of the violence committed by women involves ____________________ __________. Verbal + psychological abuse, like neglect, are also problems. ____________ seems to be the most common form of domestic violence. ___________ hasn’t been studied long, but is expected to as people begin living longer. End Section 3

15 Current families are increasingly likely to be:
Types of families Today, the “__________” American family (working dad, homemaker mom, + 2 kids) accounts for ___________ of all American families – compared to over 60% in 1950. Current families are increasingly likely to be: _________ families Single-parent families __________ marriages Dual-employed marriages ___________ Same-sex domestic partners __________ only Have boomerang kids

16 Blended families A family formed when at least one of the partners in a marriage has a child or children from a ______ _____________. About ____% of households in the US contain biologically unrelated individuals (besides the married couple). Half-siblings are brothers or sisters who share EITHER the same ________________________. Step-siblings are related by marriage of one of each of their parents, + have no __________________. Major problems facing blended families: 1. _________ – often have to pay alimony +/or child support. 2. ____________________ – may resent new marriage + new siblings 3. ____________ – Power struggles may occur b/w stepparents + stepchildren, especially if children are teenagers.

17 Single-parent families
#s come from the 2010 Census Over _____ of American families is a single-parent family. Only 10% of these children live in a ___________ household. Why? Women in all social classes are still more likely to ______________ of their children (although this has been ). Unwed mothers + mothers ___________ by their children’s fathers make up a large part of poor single-parent households + these women marry/remarry at a ____________. Although much fewer, an # of _______ __________________ women head single-parent households by choosing to have a child alone. This is largely due to the single parent stigma Adolescents (youths yrs old) in single-parent families or w/ step-parents are more likely to have _________________, often due to single parents’ lack of time +/or $.

18 Childless marriages In the past, married women w/o kids were pitied + _______________. Today, more married women are choosing not to have kids. Why? stigma about being _________ To pursue personal +/or career goals Wait too long + ____________ Incapable of having kids Are these marriages happier than those w/ kids? Typically, if the couple wants kids, but can’t have them, they’re _____ happy. If they chose not to have kids, than they’re usually ________.

19 Dual-employed marriages
Marriages in which both spouses work outside the home. Disadvantages: __________ for kids Often places a disproportionate amount of work/stress/guilt on the _______ Women still typically do more of the household + child-raising duties Some men may feel conflicted if their wife _____________ than they do. Advantages: Greater feelings of control, independence, + self-esteem for ________ who choose to work. _____________ Men don’t have the stress of being the ________________ Happier wives means happier husbands 

20 Cohabitation Living w/ someone in a _______________ arrangement w/o the _______________ + responsibilities of a formal marriage. # has been Only about ¼ cohabitating couples stay together more than _______ If they do marry, they tend to be less satisfied in that marriage + more likely to ________ later.

21 Same-sex domestic partners or marriages
Singles B/c there is still a stigma attached to homosexuality, it’s impossible to know how many Americans are gay. The # has been estimated to be around _____%. More homosexual couples are living together openly + some states are now allowing them to marry or have “_______ ________”. More Americans are choosing to remain single. Why? ________ on being single Pursuing _______ +/or personal goals

22 About __ adults lived w/ their parents in 2004.
Boomerang kids Adult children who _____________________ or who continue to live w/ their parents. American adults yrs old are more likely to live in the parents’ home now than they were 30 yrs ago. About __ adults lived w/ their parents in 2004. Why are more people becoming boomerang kids? Continuing education ___________ to live alone Marrying later __________ Consequences for parents can be a financial burden, ________________, +/or marital dissatisfaction. Consequences for children besides circumstances that caused them to move in can be a ________________ + feelings of guilt/shame. End Section 4

23 Ch 12 – Education The bureaucratic nature of schools
In the early 1900s, school administration was based on a ____________. Educators believed education should be mass produced. Although schools now attempt to be more _____________, they are still highly bureaucratic in nature, based heavily on specialization, rules + procedures, + ___________. Why follow a bureaucratic model? Teachers, guidance counselors, librarians, administrators, etc… are __________ which allow for more efficiency. It’s also more efficient to group students by _______________________. Teaching similar content allow materials to be ___________________ + testing can be ___________. Also allows students to transfer schools + continue learning the same things.

24 Challenging formal education
Formal schooling (education that is provided + ________________) is criticized as not meeting the expressive, creative + emotional needs of all children. Reforms to education began in the 1920s w/ the humanistic movement + has 3 main ways of ___________________: 1. The Open Classroom is a non-bureaucratic approach education based on democratic relationships, flexibility, + non competitiveness. They avoid the sharp __________ line b/w teachers + students It also abandons ___________________ the use of graded report cards as it believes ________ isn’t a good motivator.

25 2. Cooperative Learning takes place in a non-
2. Cooperative Learning takes place in a non- bureaucratic classroom structure where students _____________ w/ teachers as ______ instead of controlling agents Emphasizes cooperation, not competition. Benefits include: - Uncooperativeness + ______ among students . - Academic performance . - Students have more _________ ________ toward school. - Racial + ethnic antagonism . - ____________ . 3. Integrative Curriculum is an approach to education based on _________________ ____________ in determining the curriculum. Subject matter is selected organized around certain ___________ themes. Emphasizes a hands-on approach.

26 Back-to-basics movement
Began in the 1990s, alongside the cooperative learning + integrative curriculum. Started by people worried by ___________________________ who wanted a return to ________________ based on more bureaucratic methods. Started due to a 1983 report entitled A Nation at Risk which claimed America’s schools were deficient + the US was in danger of being ___________________ ____________________. Encouraged more bureaucratic solutions + ________________ at school (more core classes, longer school days/years, more achievement tests, more homework for high-schoolers, + tighter discipline).

27 Alternatives to the public school system
A current debate in education is over ______________. The idea is that _________ among schools will improve schools overall. Students/parents choose the schools they believe best fits their needs. There are several ways of accomplishing this goal: The ________________ Charter Schools Magnet Schools _________ Schools

28 The Voucher System A system in which __________________ may be used to support public, private, or _________ schools. Families w/ children attending public school continue to ____________. Families w/ children attending religious or other private school would receive a ________ from the gov.’t to help pay a portion of the tuition equal to the amount the gov.’t spends per child in the public school system w/ the remaining amount to be paid by the parents. Has had a ____________. Only 6 states allow it. 36 states prohibit it in their constitutions. Some courts reject it as ____________ (due to public $ going to religious institutions) but some cases of vouchers have been upheld. Some favor it for choice + forcing schools to ___________. Some oppose it for draining public school funds + potentially leading to racial + class ___________.

29 Charter + magnet schools
Charter schools are publicly funded schools operated like _______________ by public school teachers + administrators. They don’t have to answer to local school boards + have __________ to design their own curriculum + use different teaching methods. Magnet schools are public schools that focus on a _________ such as fine arts or science. The are designed to enhance school quality + promote desegregation. They have been shown to be a significant factor in _____________ __________.

30 Schools run by ______________ on gov.’t funds.
For-profit schools Schools run by ______________ on gov.’t funds. They borrow from __________________ _________ to try to be more efficient, productive, + cost productive. The belief behind these schools is that gov.’t is too wasteful + ineffective so a _________________ would allow the best schools to survive + weak schools would fail. Lack public oversight + critics argue that these schools may __________________ __________ needs. End Section 1

31 The functionalist perspective’s view of education
According to functionalists, social institutions exist b/c they meet one or more of society’s __________. A manifest function is an ___________ + recognized result. Some manifest functions of education are to teach ____________, transmit culture, create a common identity, select + screen ______, + promote personal growth. Schools help _____________ by instilling the basic values + norms of the society. They create a common identity by teaching a common language, ___________________ w/ patriotic themes, + teaching similar content. They select + screen talent through intelligence + achievement tests. Their results can be used for tracking (placing students in programs according to ____________ levels). They promote personal growth by exposing students to various activities + experiences (ex. assemblies + ___________________).

32 A latent function is an ________ + unrecognized result.
Some latent functions of education include: ____________________ Making friends + finding dates Training grounds for __________ A dysfunction is an unintended + _______ result. Some dysfunctions of education include: Can perpetuate unequal ______________ structure Delinquents can meet + commit various ________ End Section 2

33 The conflict perspective’s view of education
The conflict perspective attempts to show that the popular conceptions about the relationship b/w schools + society ___________________. In a meritocracy, social status is based on ability + achievement instead of parental status. In theory, all individuals have an equal chance to ______________________ for the benefit of themselves + their society. Meritocracy is based on competition (the social process that occurs when rewards are given to people on the basis of how _________________________ w/ the performance of others doing the same task or participating in the same event). Although the US claims to be a ___________, some barriers for certain people have been identified to true merit-based achievement such as gender, race, ethnicity + ___________ ________.

34 Why the inequalities? _________ are more likely to live in poorer areas w/ _________________. In turn, they score lower on the SAT/ACT + can’t get into higher level universities. Thus, they tend to get into lower-paying careers keeping them + their children in a lower socioeconomic status which ______________. Cognitive ability is the capacity for __________________. Cultural bias is the __________________ of the cognitive abilities of people in some social categories. B/c some tests measuring cognitive ability have a cultural bias, some groups of students __________ than their actual abilities. So why are tests culturally biased? ________ of the test – some students may not know certain words due to lack of exposure or having learned it as a 2nd language. Lack of ______ in the testing environment. Lack of understanding of the importance of the test. Lack of _______ for impoverished children.

35 2 methods of promoting educational equality are:
Educational equality exists when schooling produces the same results of achievement + attitudes for __________________ children as it does for less disadvantaged children. Research has shown that even the ___________ often evaluate students on the basis of their social class + their racial/ethnic characteristics. 2 methods of promoting educational equality are: School desegregation is the achievement of a __________ in the classroom. W/o adequate support, desegregation can ____________ of all races. W/ support, minority students get better jobs not just b/c of the education but b/c they get exposed to behavior, dress, + language often _______________________. - Exposure to different groups of people can lead to _________________. This is the basis for multicultural education (an educational curriculum that emphasizes differences among gender, ethnic, + racial categories). Compensatory education refers to the specific curricular programs designed to ___________ __________ (ex. Head Start). End Section 3

36 The symbolic interactionist perspective’s view of education
Symbolic interactionists are interested in how _________ ______________ through the socialization process. They are particularly interested in the hidden curriculum (the ________________ that teaches children norms + values of their society). Schools socialize children to transition from their families to the competitive adult occupational world. Conformity + achievement are emphasized through ____________________. Patriotism + a sense of civic duty are transmitted though a view of __________________________. Textbooks convey values by what they exclude as much as by what they include. Examples include past treatment of ________________________. Teachers can unintentionally effect a student’s performance based on his/her _____________________ ____________. This creates a self-fulfilling prophecy (a prediction that results in behavior that makes the prediction come true). When teachers expect children to do well, they are more likely to do so, + when they expect them to do poorly, they are more likely to do so as well. Teachers can also unintentionally __________. End Section 4

37 Ch 13 – Political and Economic Institutions
The link b/w economics + politics The economic institution is the set of functions that concern how ___________ ____________________________ for a society. B/c economic decisions affect how resources are shared b/w organizations + the general public, ______________. The political institution is the institution through which _____________________ __________. It has the responsibility for handling the conflicts that come from certain economic decisions. Think of economics as the distribution of _______ + politics as the exercise of power.

38 Power + authority Power is the ability to ___________________ of others – even against their will. Power takes different forms. Ex. political, $, fame, ____________, etc… Coercion is control through the use or _____________. A political system based on coercive power is ________ _________ – the people will want to rise against it. Authority is power accepted as _______ by those subject to it. Ex. teachers grade students, gov.’ts collect taxes, etc… Forms of authority: Charismatic authority comes from the personality of an individual. - Leaders have strong personalities + can often _________________. - ________ - gone as soon as leader dies. Traditional authority is authority w/ legitimacy through __________. - Kings pass their kingdom to sons. Rational-legal authority is the authority of gov.’t officials based on the ___________________. - The power is w/ the office, not the individual. They still have to obey laws.

39 Types of political systems
Democracy – type of gov.’t in which the supreme authority rests w/ the people (__________________). In a representative democracy individuals are elected to _________________________. Assumes not everyone in modern society can be actively involved in all __________________ + that elected officials who don’t satisfy the wishes of the majority won’t win reelections. Totalitarianism – a political system in which a ruler w/ absolute power attempts to control __________________________. Characteristics of a totalitarian gov.’t include: __________________ – usually controlled by 1 person. A monopoly over __________ resources. A planned economy directed by the state. ______________ – crush opposition, spy + intimidate. Indoctrination – instruction in the ________________ Propaganda + censorship – gov.’t _________________. Religious or ethnic persecution – often create “enemies of the state” (someone to blame for ______________). Authoritarianism – a political system controlled by elected or nonelected rulers who usually permit ____________________ __________. In b/w democracy + totalitarianism. End Section 1

40 Voting in the US The US has one of the ___________________ rates in the industrialized world w/ usually around _____ of eligible voters voting. This is partly due to a low level of confidence in ________________. The choice voters have is limited by several factors: The ______________________ – to get elected to a high office, a person usually must have the support of one of the major parties. To get party support, a candidate must appeal to the most voters possible, which means candidates _________ each other in many ways. The cost of running a political campaign. _______________________.

41 Political socialization is the informal + formal process by which a person develops _________ _________. The major agents of political socialization are: The _______ – about 2/3 Americans follow the ___________ as their parents ________ – the more educated the person, the more likely they are to being politically knowledgeable + active. ___________ - draws attention to various topics, emphasizes some problems while downplaying or ignoring others. Determines what ______________ + forces politicians to take notice. Economic status + occupation – we tend to vote based on how issues affect our ___________. Age + gender – younger people tend to be _____________. Women tend to be more concerned w/ women’s issues. _______________ are also factors

42 2 models of political power
Democratic societies have 2 models of political power: Pluralism is when political decisions are the result of _____________________ among special interest groups. No one group holds the majority of power. Power is ____________________ throughout a society. Functionalists focus on pluralism + how decisions are made based on the __________ shared by the general public. Interest groups (groups organized to _________________________ making) help advance their cause(s).

43 Elitism is when a society is controlled from the top by a _____________________________.
Power is concentrated in the hands of a few w/ common interests + backgrounds w/ the masses having ______________ _________. Conflict perspective followers focus on elitism + how the key economic, political, + military leaders overlap to form a ___________ known as the power elite. - In the US, the power elite is said to be educated in select boarding schools, ______________, + Ivey League schools. They belong to the Episcopalian + Presbyterian churches. They also come from __________________, have many mutual acquaintances, share many values, + intermarry. End Section 2

44 The 4 factors of production
The _____________ required to make all goods + services. These are necessary in every ______: Entrepreneurs – someone who brings together ____________ ______ + organizes them to produce goods or offer services Capital – ______ ____ resources (such as buildings, equipment, tools, machinery, services, $, etc) Labor – people + their _________ Land – includes all “_______________” land, water, natural resources (like diamonds, oil, iron, etc…) The Factors of Production They take the _____ doing something new + aren’t considered part of labor The only factor that assists in production + is a result of ______ ________

45 Communism v. Socialism v. Capitalism Grading Powerpoint
Economic systems Communism v. Socialism v. Capitalism Grading Powerpoint These 3 systems each answer the questions of production (What, how, + for whom to produce?) in different ways. They also have __________________________ __________________ should be used.

46 Characteristics of Capitalist Economies
Capitalism Characterized by private (or corporate) ________________ + the pursuit of profit. Consumers, workers, + entrepreneurs have ____________________. Minimum of gov.’t interference – they should protect citizens from _______. Characteristics of Capitalist Economies ______________ – individuals own capital, workers “____” their labor, + property rights are protected. _______________ – entrepreneurs can start, run, sell, + dissolve their businesses. ________ – what drives the economy ___________ – promotes efficiency + better products

47 Inadequate competition
Over time, mergers + acquisitions have led to ________ _______________ dominating various industries. This has led to a in competition which has several important consequences: 1. Inefficient __________________ – including $ (instead of investing in the company, executives may get big bonuses + benefits). prices output – “________________” 3. Economic + political power Monopoly - A market structure w/ only _________ of a particular product. They control production + distribution of a product or service. It is a ______________. Ex: Utilities – determined by the gov.’t Mostly illegal Oligopoly – A market structure in which a ___________ ________ dominate the industry. The product may be exactly the same or different. Ex: Coke + Pepsi Sometimes the businesses may take part in _________. Illegal.

48

49 Communism (Your book calls this socialism – DO NOT CALL IT THAT!!!)
Is an economic system which calls for the collective, or ____, ownership of land + other _____________________. _______ observed the plight of the workers during the Industrial Revolution + wrote The Communist Manifesto (along w/ Friedrich Engels) in response. He believed that history was an ongoing _____________________________. He believed that the _________ (proletariat) would rise up against the _________ (bourgeoisie) in a violent revolution. These violent revolutions would continue until eventually the capitalist system would by overthrown + everyone would work for the benefit of society + share in its _____________. Marx would become known as the _________ of communism (+ socialism).

50 Characteristics of Communist Countries
How countries implement communism Failures of communism – _______________ motive, poor central planning, corruption, etc. Characteristics of Communist Countries Role of the _____________ – it has control over the gov.’t + the economy (leads to control over social, intellectual, + religious life also). the gov.’t makes all economic decisions such as planning what + how much farms + factories will produce. It sets goals + prices. It also decides how goods + services will be distributed. ____________ – private farms are all combined under gov.’t control (in theory). the gov.’t owns all industries (in theory).

51 Socialism (Your book calls this Mixed economic systems)
An economic + political philosophy based on the idea that the benefits of economic activity (wealth) should be ______________________________. This is achieved through the principle of __________ (meaning public or gov.’t) ________ of the most important means by which goods + services are produced + distributed, as well as some other major industries. In other words, the public controls the _______________________. Instead of emphasizing competition for profit (like many capitalist nations), socialists tend to emphasize cooperation + ____________________. A major socialist movement began during the Industrial Revolution as the gap b/w the ___________________

52 How countries implement socialism
Characteristics of Socialist Economies Nationalization – (the gov.’t acquires _____________ for public use) often includes utilities transportation, steel, oil, etc. ______________ – socialist countries provide equal distribution of necessities + services such as housing, health care, free college, etc. _________ – although gov.’ts of both capitalist + provide services through taxation, taxes in socialist countries are much __________. _______________ _______ – instead of just private individuals deciding what to invest in + what to produce, the gov.’t also has a lot of input as to how the economy will develop. Welfare states are countries that provide _____________________ at little or no cost. Around _______% of income goes to taxes - middle + upper classes pay a higher % End Section 3

53 Corporations A form of business controlled by __________, who have limited liability + limited control, recognized by law as a separate legal entity having all the ________________. Gives it the right to buy + sell _________, enter contracts, + to sue/be sued. Shares of _____ (certificates of ownership) are sold to shareholders (or stockholders) who “_____” the company. If the company is profitable, they get a % of its ________. If it goes into debt, they may lose their investment, but ____________. Top corporate officials can influence _____________ by using their wealth + power to punish or reward elected officials. They may donate to campaigns or leave if they disagree w/ the gov.’ts economic policies – taking ____ w/ them. A corporation is run by its ______________________. Interlocking directorates occur when the heads of corporations sit on one another’s boards. This ________ their power/influence greatly.

54 The idea is to avoid putting all your eggs in one basket.
Conglomerates Multinationals A firm that has at least ___________ that each make unrelated products, none of which make up a majority of its _______. The idea is to avoid putting all your eggs in one basket. Makes it difficult to know who _________. Corporations that make goods +/or provide services in _________________ (can also be ______________). Some of the most powerful multinationals have sales volumes greater than the economic output of some ____________ (p. 447). Able to move resources, goods, services, + $ across _____________________. Can be beneficial b/c they transfer ______________, create new jobs, generate more tax $. Can be detrimental b/c they may be ___________, pay low wages to workers, export scarce natural resources, +/or interfere w/ the development of local businesses. End Section 4

55 Ex. Farmers, miners, ranchers, fishermen, etc…
The 3 economic sectors The primary sector is the part of the economy producing goods from the ____________________. Ex. Farmers, miners, ranchers, fishermen, etc… The secondary sector is the part of the economy engaged in _______________________. Ex. Factory workers, often called blue-collar workers. The tertiary sector is the part of the economy ______________. Ex. Teachers, cops, doctors, actors, mechanics, etc… Before the Industrial Revolution, most workers were in the ______ sector. Afterwards, more were in the _______ sector. W/ more recent technological advances occurring post-WWII requiring less manufacturing, most workers now work in the ______ sector (77% of Americans). STAGE ACTIVITY BUSINESS INVOLVED Woodcutter Primary Secondary Furniture maker Retailer Tertiary

56 Occupational structure
Occupations are categories of jobs that involve similar activities at _______________________. Ex. Teacher, cop, electrician, dental assistant, etc… - all involve similar training no matter where they work. While manufacturing jobs have been going overseas, the US has been gaining some jobs in ____________ __________. However, there are two concerns: Many of the jobs being gained offer _______. The new jobs require ______________ then those people have who used to work in _______________. Since the 1970s many major corporations have been downsizing (the process by which companies their _______ workforce). To save $, they then their contingent employment (hiring of part-time, short-term workers). Contingent workers receive lower pay + no benefits. Some believe that this trend is the gap b/w the haves + the haves nots + is causing workers to have ____________ in their management. End Section 5

57 Ch 14 – Religion Religion + sociology
A religion is a unified __________________ + practices concerned w/ sacred things. Sacred means “____” or set apart + given a special meaning that goes beyond immediate existence. Secular (or _______) refers to the non-sacred aspects of life. Not unholy, just _____________. What is sacred in one culture can be secular in others + ______________. What is sacred can ____________ over time + what is secular can become sacred. Sociologists approach religion as a ________ ________ + focus on the social aspects of religion that can be observed + measured. Read p “India’s Sacred Cow” End Section 1

58 Functionalism + religion
Religion exists in some form in almost ______________. Evidence of religion can be traced back to 50,000 B.C. Emile Durkheim was the 1st sociologist to look at religion _____________ + wonder why religion can be found in so many societies. He concluded that societies used sacred symbols as a mirror for themselves, + that through religious rituals, people __________________ + remind themselves of their shared past + future existence. Other social functions of religion include: ___________ to the current social arrangements – justifies social norms/ attitudes + makes them legitimate (to give _________________ to). It explains why some should have power or not, why we should do some things + not others, etc… Encourages a sense of ______ – provides a social order + causes us to work together (but can also divide a society). Provides a _____________________ – gives us a sense of place in the world + eternal significance to our short existence. Promotes a sense of belonging – helps us feel ___________ to others.

59 The conflict theory + religion
The conflict theory focuses on how religion works to discourage or encourage _______________. Karl Marx believed religion was the “_______________”. People believed they shouldn’t do anything to go against their faith even if it kept them bad circumstances. He believed that religion was a tool for those in power to keep their power + that the workers should ______________. He saw religion as working against social change. Max Weber explained how the of __________ helped the of ________. He noticed that capitalism emerged in NW Europe + in the US. Some Protestant sects saw work as a ____________ which led to what Weber called the Protestant ethic (a set of norms + attitudes stressing hard work, thrift, + self-discipline). This came in large part from John Calvin’s beliefs that ______________ his chosen ones in this life, consumption beyond necessity is _______, + that life + material goods should be used to _____________. This led to the spirit of capitalism (the obligation to reinvest $ in business rather than spend it) + the growth of business. He saw _______ as possibly helping to cause social change.

60 Symbolic interactionism + religion
Peter Berger believed that when humans create religious traditions they are providing a cover of _______________ to lay over the __________. They use these meaning to guide everyday social interaction. They give people a way to identify what is ________ + what is not. They provide stability + security. People are more likely to become religious in ________ _______ b/c religion can help provide them w/ a sense of certainty + relief (like the idea of an afterlife or affirmation that a decision made is the morally correct one). End Section 2

61 Religious organization
In Western societies, most people practice religion through some _______________________. So religions can be organized by church, denomination, sect, + cult. Sociologists consider a church to be a life-encompassing religious organization to which ___________________ belong. Exists when a __________________ are closely intertwined. Ex. Italy centuries ago under the Catholic Church or England under the Church of England. When Americans talk about a “church” we are actually referring to a denomination, which is one of several religious organizations that most members of a society _____________________. Denominations aren’t tied to the state, so membership is voluntary + _________________ _____________ is socially acceptable. A sect is a religious organization formed out of a desire to __________________ religious organization. They believe the current denomination has ______________ important beliefs or traditions.

62 A cult is a religious organization whose characteristics _______ ______________ existing religious traditions w/in a society. They either get their views from outside the society or create them from w/in. Many people associate cults w/ _____ beliefs + behavior but many cults aren’t. So why do people join cults? B/c they: Provide a supportive community to help overcome loneliness + provide emotional ties. They often use ___________ when talking about members. Emphasize immediate experience + emotional gratification. Religion is “___” rather than just being thought about. Claim to offer something _______________ in an artificial world. Extremist cults emphasize security through _____________. Provides converts w/ feelings of certainty + safety. Indicators of cults are if they require _________ from family + friends, use of ____, severe punishment or psychological conditioning, +/or claims of special knowledge ____________ can know.

63 There are 5 dimensions of religiosity:
Ways in which people ________ their religious attitudes + behaviors in their everyday lives. There are 5 dimensions of religiosity: _______ – what a person believes to be true. ______ – religious practices people are expected to perform. They may be _________________. Intellectual dimension – knowledge of holy or sacred ___________. _________ – certain feelings attached to religious expression (ex. feeling close to the deity when praying). _____________ – are the decisions + commitments people make due to their religious beliefs. These consequences may deal w/ private or public issues (ex. abstaining from sex before marriage + opposing abortion). End Section 3

64 Development of religion in the US
The 1st settlers to colonize what would become the US were looking for __________________ ____________ + the Puritans believed that they would be a religious example to the world. This has led to the idea of American exceptionalism – the belief that the US is a special + unique example of liberty + democracy for the _____________________________. Despite this the founding fathers believed in separation of __________________. However, certain religious minorities have ___________ in America’s history. Religion has also influenced periods of American history (ex. Antislavery + Prohibition movements). Today, slightly less than ____ of Americans are Protestant (particularly Baptist 16% + Methodist 8%). Catholics are 24% + Jews are 2%. The unaffiliated (atheist, agnostic, no opinion) make up about _____% of the population.

65 Secularization in the US
Secularization is the process through which the ___________________ over society. Ex. Education used to be provided primarily through clerics. Although it’s widely believed that religion is __________________ in the US, it is still highly religious when compared to other ____________________. There are now over ______ recognized denominations/sects + thousands of independent congregations in the US.

66 Fundamentalism in the US
Fundamentalism is the _____________________ + the rigid adherence to traditional religious beliefs, rituals, + doctrines. It has been on the in the US for the last 30 or so yrs. __________________ – Christian (including Catholics, Protestants, Morons), Muslims, + Jews. However, in the US it mostly involves ___________. Fundamentalists are politically ___________. Protestant fundamentalists in the US believe in the _______________ of the Scriptures. Protestant fundamentalists aren’t _______________. Denominations fundamentalism is predominately found in include Mormons, Baptists, + Jehovah’s Witnesses. Why is fundamentalism on the ? They offer ___________ in an uncertain world. They tend to be less formal + impersonal than ______________________. They claim to offer a more purely sacred environment. The ________ has helped spread their message.

67 Religion, social class, + politics
Social class – on average, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, + Jews are likely to be at _______ social classes; Catholics, Methodists, + Lutherans are likely to be in the _____; + Baptists are more likely to be at the _______ social classes. Upper classes tend to express their religiosity through _________________, church attendance, + observance of rituals. Lower classes tend to express their religiosity through private prayer + _____________________________. Political affiliation – Jews + Catholics are more likely to be __________, while most Protestants denominations are more likely to be _________. Jews + Catholics have been discriminated against + are more likely to favor stronger separation of church + state. Protestants being in the majority are more likely to want to allow religion into ____________.

68 Religion, science, + society
Religion + science both examine humanity’s ___________________. Religion involves matters beyond human observation while science focuses on what can be observed. While many scientists are religious + many clerics support the field of science, sometimes there is ________ b/w the two. In the US, the separation of church + state has led to scientific explanations for ________________ while religious groups may teach their own interpretations w/in their organizations. End Section 4

69 Ch 15 – Sport Sports A set of competitive activities in which winners + losers are determined by _______ _________ w/in a set of established ____. Teaches some of the ______________ of a society + promotes attachment to society (cheering for the home team). In the US, it reflects our emphasis on ________________________. Like many other aspects of society in the US, women are 2nd to men in power in sports. A sport subculture is a group w/ ________ roles, values, norms, + beliefs that is organized around a sport activity. End Section 1

70 Some contradictions in sports
Although sports help teach + reinforce culture, there are many ____________ in sports. Examples include: Can ______________ social classes + racial/ethnic groups but may heighten barriers that separate groups. Can promote _______ by teaching the importance of following the rules but may tempt people to cheat due to their _____________________. Can promote muscle strength, weight control, + endurance but may lead to the use of _______, excessive weight loss or gain + injuries. Can contribute to _______________ through scholarships but may take away $ from academics + emphasize athletics over academics.

71 Functionalism + sports
Functionalists believe sports help society work more smoothly. They: Teach basic beliefs, norms, + values. Promote a sense of ________ ________________. Offer a safe release of ________ (physical + verbal). Encourages the _______________ _________ through hard work + discipline. But there are also dysfunctions. They: Desire to achieve can lead to ___________ + excessive violence. Encourage steroid use or extreme ___________.

72 The conflict theory + sports
Conflict theorists view sports are a social institution in which the ________ _________, manipulate, + coerce others. They emphasize the way sports mirror the unequal _________________ + $ in society. They argue that the unity produced by home teams is ____________. They debate the belief that sports help form _________________. Sportsmanship tends to the ____________ athletes become in sport systems. Ex. non-scholarship athletes show more sportsmanship that scholarship athletes + the many scandals pro-athletes have been involved in.

73 Symbolic interactionism + sports
Symbolic interactionists focus on symbols in sports + how they influence the development of ___________________ ____________ of those involved. For ex. adults might teach hard work, fair play, __________, + winning, but these messages may be interpreted as __________, toughness, + risky behavior. End Section 2

74 Sports + social mobility
College athletes as a whole are _______ _________ than college students who don’t participate in sports. Some people believe that sports are a social class escalator for __________. However others argue that this emphasis on success in sports is bad b/c it takes away attention from ______________. Minority children then often spend to much time + energy improving their athletic skills though they’re highly unlikely to become a professional athlete + then have __________________. Sports + sport ___________ can help minorities + other athletes gain access to a college education they might not have otherwise though. Sport Odds of a high school athlete playing pro Average career length in pros Baseball 0.1% 1-7 yrs Basketball 0.2% 4-6 yrs Football <0.2% 4½ yrs

75 Sports + racism Stacking is the process of assigning minority players to __________________ (which often involve more __________ ______________). Ex. Few black quarterbacks but many blacks in other less central positions. These positions often have __________ that cut those careers short. Although blacks appear to make as much or more $ than white pro-sports players, when _________________ is accounted for, blacks must perform better than whites to avoid __________________. Minorities are also ________________ in positions of power w/in their sport (ex. coaches, owners, announcers, etc…)

76 Women are very _________________ in pro-sports.
Sexism in sports Sexism in sports can be traced back all the way to the _____________, where the few ________ who were athletic were depicted as not being attracted to or attractive by men. ___________ have traditionally discouraged females from playing sports. Female athletes were seen as more __________. Also, some used to believe that it would harm women’s health especially her ability to _________________. In 1972, Title IX was passed by the federal gov.’t requiring females have ______________ to sports – although interpreting this law has been __________. Currently the courts favor a ____________ of each gender to match the school’s population. It has also led a in women in ___________ ____ in sports b/c as women’s sports gain more respect, men are more willing to take those positions. Women are very _________________ in pro-sports. End Section 3


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