2 How can Northern resources help the South? Will they? In what ways can the South rebuild its economy?What can the Government do to assist African Americans?
3 How is reconstruction going to work? Abraham Lincoln’s planAndrew Johnson’s planTen Percent Plan: Government would pardon all confederate states if 10% of the voters in the election took this oath of allegiance.*Excludes Confederate leaders & wealthy landowners •Congress rejects new Southern govts. and congressmenRadical Republicans think these plans are too lenient
5 Radical Republicans- led by Thaddeus Stevens of Penn Radical Republicans- led by Thaddeus Stevens of Penn. and Charles Sumner of Mass.- wanted to destroy all political power of former slaveholdersExpected full rights to be given to freedmenCongress passes the Wade-Davis bill- that Congress should be over Reconst. - Lincoln vetoes- power struggle betw. Pres. and Congress
6 Lincoln dies- April 1865Johnson’s plan does nothing to solve problems of landowning, voting and protection of the freed slavesJohnson pardoned Confederate leaders- many of the same people were electedCongress convenes and refuses to seat the new southern representatives
8 Congressional Reconstruction Reconstruction Act of 1867 divides Confederacy into districts-troops stationed in eachFourteenth Amendment grants full citizenship to African AmericansFreedmen’s Bureau provides social services, medical care, education to Southern blacks and poor whites
11 Southern states passed Black Codes - laws that limited southern blacks politically, socially and economically- no blacks on juries- can’t carry guns, no travel without permits, etc.
12 Johnson is impeached!Johnson is impeached- he fired Sec. of War Stanton and broke the Tenure of Office ActReal reason for impeachment:b/c he did not enforce reconstruction laws in the South
13 Ulysses S. Grant (Union general) is elected president in 1868 and received 90% of African-American votesFifteenth Amendment: African Americans are granted suffrage
14 Changes for African Americans Hiram Revels: is first black senator (Miss.)Sharecropping: a family would farm a portion of someone’s land in exchange for housing and a share of the crop.Tenant Farming: families would rent the land and farm it.Ku Klux Klan: Southern group which formed during reconstruction and became a violent terrorist organization.Wanted to restore white supremacy
15 Sharecropping in Arkansas Included both freed slaves and poor whitesFarmed the land in exchange for part of the crop and housing
16 Ku Klux Klan meetingKnown for cross burning and violence towards African AmericansDeveloped during Reconstruction in the South
17 Southern BitternessCarpetbaggers: Northerners who migrated South for business. Southerners saw these carpetbaggers as taking advantage of them.Scalawags: Southerners who supported reconstruction
19 Democrats redeem the South *1876 Rutherford B. Hayes Republican) is elected president (over Samuel J. Tilden)- election was questionedThe Compromise of 1877 – struck deal election Hayes and ending ReconstructionSouthern state governments redeem their power in the South and reconstruction ends (Redemption Governments)
20 Jim Crow laws kept the races separate by segregating facilities – Plessy v. Ferguson said separation of the races is legal as long as the facilities are equalLiteracy tests, poll taxes and the Grandfather clause keep African Americans from voting