Presentation on theme: "Alternative Energy Sources"— Presentation transcript:
1 Alternative Energy Sources Chapter 17Alternative Energy Sources
2 Section 17.1 – Solar Energy Sun = source of all energy on Earth. Solar energy – energy from the sunIt is absorbed by plants and used as fuel by virtually all organisms.Fossil fuels contain energy from the remains of organisms so they also contain energy originally from the sun
3 Section 17.1 – Solar EnergyThe sun obtains its energy through thermonuclear fusion.High temperatures in the sun’s core cause hydrogen nuclei to fuse, or join, forming helium nuclei. As each helium nucleus forms a loss of mass occurs, this is converted to heat and light energy of the sun.
4 Section 17.1 – Solar Energy Advantages of Solar Energy Free Clean Non-pollutingCan be collected and storedDrawbacks of Solar EnergyEnergy source is not constantLimited sunlight; like cloudy/rainy daysDevices for storing it are not very efficient (expensive)
5 Section 17.1 – Solar Energy Passive Solar Energy Sunlight energy is used directly as a source of light or heat.The sun’s energy is collected, stored, and distributed naturally in an enclosed dwelling.GreenhouseEnclosed car with windows up on a hot dayNot used to produce electricity.Provides an alternative source of heat.Helps reduce the use of fossil and nuclear fuels.Building houses where the windows face the majority of sunlight – dark roof and sides.
7 Section 17.1 – Solar Energy Active Solar Energy Has a greater capacity for storing and distributing energy.Devices used to collect, store and circulate heat produced from solar energy.Uses tubes, tanks, fluids, pumps, fans to collect and distribute energy.
8 Active Solar Energy Use of solar collectors – mounted on roofs Use water which heats to steam.
10 Section 17.1 – Solar Energy Photovoltaic Cells (PV cells) A solar cell that produces electricity.Use thin wafers of semiconductor material to produce electricity directly from solar energy.Sunlight strikes the cell causing electrons to move from one slice of material to the other.The movement of electrons results in an electric current.Includes the use of calculators, satellites, and watches.
11 Section 17.2 – Hydroelectric Energy Electricity that is produced from the energy of moving water.Water power is an indirect use of solar energy.Construction of dams to control the rate of the water.
12 Section 17.3 – Wind EnergyAerogenerators – windmills that are used to generate electricity, also known as wind turbine generators.Advantages DisadvantagesFreeUnlimitedNonpollutingSaves fuelWind energy can be used to move ships, pump water, generate electricity.Not always availableTake up spaceDanger to birdsUglyCostly
14 Section 17.4 – Geothermal Energy The heat generated within the Earth.It does not involve the energy from the sun.Source is generated by the decay of radioactive elements deep beneath the ground.Enough heat is present deep within the Earth to melt rock.Magma is molten rock.Lava is magma that has reached the surface.Includes geysers, steam vents, hot springs
16 Section 17.4 – Geothermal Energy DisadvantagesNot widely available because costly to extract.Not always easy to locate.Gives off toxic hydrogen sulfide (corrosive gas).
17 Section 17.4 – Geothermal Energy Nuclear fusion – two atomic nuclei fuse to become one larger nucleus.Source of energy given off from the sun.Problem - Not yet learned to control and harness the energy and use it efficiently.The fuel for nuclear fusion is Hydrogen and its isotopes.H-2 abundant in seawater.