2 Parts of a solution Solute The substance that is dissolved into the solution.examples:Sugar in kool-aidSalt in salt waterCO2 in popSolventThe substance that does the dissolving in a solution.examples:Most common is water.
3 Dissolving Three ways to dissolve a solute in a solvent: Dissociation DispersionIonization
4 ConductivityMany solutions can conduct an electric current if electrolytes are present. (ions)Electrolytes = substances that will conduct an electric current when dissolved. Ex. NaCl, KCl, MgBr2
5 Freezing Point Depression Lowering the freezing point of water by the addition of a soluteex. salt.Used on icy roads in winterIce-cream
6 Boiling point elevation The addition of a solute to a liquid solvent will usually raise the boiling point of the solvent.Adding salt to boil water when cooking
7 Concentration Concentrated A large amount of solute dissolved in a solventDiluteA little bit of solute dissolved in a solvent
8 SaturationA solution that contains all the solute it can possibly hold at a given temperature is said to be saturated.Unsaturated = contains less solute than it can possibly holdSupersaturated = a solution that holds more solute than it should at a given temperature.
9 Supersaturation example: Sodium acetate in water.Used in commercial hand warmers.
11 InsolubleA substance that will NOT dissolve in water.
12 “Like dissolves like”Nonpolar solvents will dissolve nonpolar solutes.examples: benzene & acetonePolar solvents will dissolve polar solutes
13 2 factors that affect solubility: 1.TemperatureIncrease in temp generally increases solubility of a solid in a liquidIncrease in temp decreases solubility of a gas in a liquid.2. PressureUsually has little, if any, effect on solid and liquid solutes.Increase in pressure increases the solubility of a gas in a liquid.
14 Specific concentration Can be defined as percent by volume or percent by massExample: 3% hydrogen peroxide or 25% fruit juice.
15 AcidsVery important chemicals in everyday life processes.
16 Properties of acids: Sour taste (never taste a chemical) All contain hydrogenAlso called “proton donors”React with active metals to produce hydrogen gas.Zn HCl ZnCl H2
17 IndicatorsChemicals used to identify acids and bases by changing color.ACIDS:Litmus paper (blue to red)Phenolphthalein (colorless)Methyl Orange (orange to red)Bromothymol Blue (changes to yellow)
18 Common acids Sulfuric (H2SO4) used in car batteries Nitric (HNO3) also fertilizersHydrochloric (HCl) stomach acidCarbonic (H2CO3) carbonated drinksAcetic (HC2H3O2) vinegar
19 BasesAlso very important in everyday processes.
20 Properties of Bases: Taste bitter; feel slippery Contain hydroxide (OH) ions.Known as “proton acceptors”Phenolphthalein turns bright pinkRed litmus paper turns blueBromothymol blue turns blueMethyl orange turns yellow
21 Common bases: Sodium hydroxide NaOH making soap; drain cleaners Potassium hydroxide KOH battery electrolyteCalcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 making plaster and drywallMagnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2antacids
22 Solutions of acids and bases pH scale (page 277)A numerical scale developed to measure the relative strengths of acids and basesRanges from 0 to 140 is the strongest acid14 is the strongest base.
23 What happens when an acid and a base combine? Always forms water and a salt.Salt = ionic compound formed when a positive ion of a base combines with a negative ion of an acid.Neutralization.These are double replacement reactions.
24 What determines if an acid is classified as “strong” or weak? Which is stronger? 1 M acetic acid or 1M hydrochloric acid?Strength is determined by how well the acid or base dissociates into solution.Strong acids and strong bases are good electrolytes.
25 Strong and Weak vs. Dilute and Concentrated Strong and weak refer to how well an acid or base create ions in solution. If a large percentage of the molecules break up, then it is strong. If not, it is weak.Dilute and Concentrated refer to the percentage of the solution that is made up of the solute.