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Physical and Chemical Changes

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Presentation on theme: "Physical and Chemical Changes"— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical and Chemical Changes

2 Properties of Matter All pure substances have characteristic properties Properties are used to distinguish between substances Properties are also used to separate substances

3 Physical Properties A Physical Property is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substance Physical properties describe the substance itself Examples Physical State Color Mass, shape, length Magnetic properties

4 States of Matter There are three common states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas

5 Solids Definite shape and definite volume
Particles are packed tightly together and held in fixed positions Particles vibrate about fixed points

6 Liquids Definite volume Takes the shape of its container
Example: Milk in a glass vs. Milk in a gallon jug Particles can move past each other (fluid) Fluid – Anything that can be poured Particles move more rapidly than in a solid

7 Gases No definite shape, takes the shape of its container
No definite volume Particles are spread far apart and move past each other rapidly

8 Chemical Properties A Chemical Property indicates how a substance will react with another Chemical properties cannot be determined without changing the identity of the substance Examples: Iron Rusting Silver Tarnishing

9 Physical Changes A Physical Change is a change in a substance that does not alter the substance’s identity Examples: Grinding Cutting Mixing ALL CHANGES OF STATE ARE PHYSICAL CHANGES!!

10 Changes of State Melting – solid becomes a liquid
Freezing – liquid becomes a solid Melting and Freezing Points are the SAME TEMPERATURE

11 Changes of State Condensation – gas becomes a liquid
Boiling – liquid becomes a gas Condensation and Boiling Points are the SAME TEMPERATURE

12 Changes of State Sublimation – solid becomes a gas
Example: dry ice Deposition – gas becomes a solid

13 Chemical Changes A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances is called a Chemical Change Signs of a Chemical Change: Color Change Gas is Released Temperature Change Precipitate – Solid falls out of solution Substance Disappears

14 Intensive vs. Extensive Properties
Extensive properties depend on the amount of matter that is present Examples: Energy in a substance, Volume, Mass Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter present Examples: Density, Melting Point, Boiling Point

15 Qualitative vs. Quantitative Measurements
Qualitative measurements are descriptive Examples: Physical State, Color, Shape, Sound, Smell Quantitative measurements are numerical Length, Mass, Volume, Density

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