Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 “Matter – Properties & Change” Adapted from the presentation created by: Stephen L. Cotton."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3 “Matter – Properties & Change” Adapted from the presentation created by: Stephen L. Cotton
SECTION 3.1 PROPERTIES OF MATTER OBJECTIVES: Identify properties of matter as extensive or intensive.
SECTION 3.1 PROPERTIES OF MATTER OBJECTIVES: Define physical property, and list several common physical properties of substances.
SECTION 3.1 PROPERTIES OF MATTER OBJECTIVES: Differentiate among three states of matter.
SECTION 3.1 PROPERTIES OF MATTER OBJECTIVES: Describe a physical change.
MATTER Matter is anything that: a) has mass, and b) takes up space Mass = a measure of the amount of “stuff” (or material) the object contains (don’t confuse this with weight, a measure of gravity) Volume = a measure of the space occupied by the object
DESCRIBING MATTER Properties used to describe matter can be classified as: 1)Extensive – depends on the amount of matter in the sample - Mass, volume, calories are examples 2)Intensive – depends on the type of matter, not the amount present - Hardness, Density, Boiling Point
Properties are… Words that describe matter (adjectives) Physical Properties- a property that can be observed and measured without changing the material’s composition. Examples- color, hardness, m.p., b.p. Chemical Properties- a property that can only be observed by changing the composition of the material. Examples- ability to burn, decompose, ferment, react with, etc.
STATES OF MATTER 1)Solid- matter that can not flow (definite shape) and has definite volume. 2)Liquid- definite volume but takes the shape of its container (flows). 3)Gas- a substance without definite volume or shape and can flow. Vapor- a substance that is currently a gas, but normally is a liquid or solid at room temperature. (Which is correct: “water gas”, or “water vapor”?)
States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Definite Volume? YES NO Definite Shape? YES NO Result of a Temperature Increase? Small Expans. Large Expans. Will it Compress? NO YES
4 TH STATE: PLASMA - FORMED AT HIGH TEMPERATURES; IONIZED PHASE OF MATTER AS FOUND IN THE SUN
PHYSICAL VS. CHEMICAL CHANGE Physical change will change the visible appearance, without changing the composition of the material. Boil, melt, cut, bend, split, crack, phase changes Is boiled water still water? Can be reversible, or irreversible Chemical change - a change where a new form of matter is formed – chemical reaction. Rust, burn, decompose, ferment
THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS Mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction – it is always conserved. mass reactants = mass products
EXAMPLE Mercury oxide is a red, solid powder at room temperature. When heated, it decomposes to liquid mercury and oxygen gas. EX: A 10.00 g sample of mercury oxide is heated in a closed flask until it is fully converted to liquid mercury and oxygen. The mass of the liquid mercury is 9.26 g. What is the mass of the oxygen formed in the reaction?
SOLUTION: LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS mass reactants = mass products mass mercury oxide = mass liquid mercury + mass oxygen 10.00 g mercury oxide = 9.26 g mercury + mass oxygen mass oxygen = 10.00 g – 9.26 g mass oxygen = 0.74 g
TRY THIS NOW PLEASE A fuel cell engineer conducted an experiment to separate water into oxygen and hydrogen gas. 10.0 g of hydrogen gas and 79.4 g of oxygen gas were collected. How much water was originally involved in the process? 89.4 g water
TRY THIS NOW PLEASE 15.6 g of sodium was placed in a reactor with excess chlorine gas. When the reaction is complete, a 39.7 g sample of NaCl was obtained. How many grams of chlorine gas reacted? 24.1 g of chlorine gas
CHALLENGE Create an experiment to demonstrate the law of conservation of mass. Materials: Baking soda Vinegar Small plastic cup Quart-size Ziplock bags