# What is matter??? Matter is anything that takes up space!!!

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What is matter??? Matter is anything that takes up space!!!
What are the three states of matter??? The three states of matter are solids, liquids, and gases! (A fourth state is Plasma but you’ll learn about that later)

Three Main Phases – page 41

Solid Solids have three main properties: It has a definite shape.
It has a definite mass. It has a definite volume. An apple is a solid This means that a solid will always look the same, take up the same amount of space, and have the same amout of molecules in

Solid Solids hold their shape.
Ice and snow are examples of water in the solid state.

Copper Phases - Solid

Liquid Liquids have three main properties:
It does not have a definite shape. It has a definite mass. It has a definite volume. Water is a liquid This means that liquids will always take up the same amount of space and have the same amount of molecules in it. However, because it does not have a definite shape, it takes the shape of its container.

Copper Phases - Liquid

Gas Gases have three main properties:
It does not have a definite shape. It does not have a definite mass. It does not have a definite volume. Air is a gas This means that a gas does not always take up the same amount of space, nor does it weigh the same all the time. Like liquids, gases take the shape of their containers. However, they will fill the space they are given. That is why they don't always take up the same amount of space!! The sun (made up of many gases), smoke from fire, and water vapor in clouds are all gases too. Can you think of more?

Copper Phases – Vapor (gas)

4th state: Plasma - formed at high temperatures; ionized phase of matter as found in the sun

On earth we live upon an island of "ordinary" matter
On earth we live upon an island of "ordinary" matter. The different states of matter generally found on earth are solid, liquid, and gas. We have learned to work, play, and rest using these familiar states of matter. Sir William Crookes, an English physicist, identified a fourth state of matter, now called plasma, in 1879.

Condense Freeze Melt Evaporate Solid Liquid Gas

Physical vs. Chemical Change
Physical change will change the visible appearance, without changing the composition of the material. Boil, melt, cut, bend, split, crack Is boiled water still water? Can be reversible, or irreversible Chemical change - a change where a new form of matter is formed. Rust, burn, decompose, ferment

Chemical Change A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances. Heat and light are often evidence of a chemical change.

Recognizing Chemical Changes
Energy is absorbed or released (temperature changes hotter or colder) Color changes Gas production (bubbling, fizzing, or odor change; smoke) formation of a precipitate - a solid that separates from solution (won’t dissolve) Irreversibility - not easily reversed But, there are examples of these that are not chemical – boiling water bubbles, etc.

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