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Basic Model of Communication

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Model of Communication"— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Model of Communication
Communication: the process of transferring information, meaning, and understanding from sender to receiver Encoding - the act of constructing a message Medium - the mode or form of transmission of a message Decoding - the act of interpreting a message Noise - potential interference with the transmission or decoding of a message

2 Basic Model of Communication
Noise: Can interfere at any point Sender Encodes message chooses a medium (channel) Sends the message Receiver Receives message Decodes message May send feedback for clarification

3 Modes of Communication
VERBAL MODE (Language used to convey meaning) NONVERBAL MODE ORAL WRITTEN NONVERBAL Examples Conversation Speeches Telephone calls Videoconferences Letters Memos Reports Fax Dress Speech intonation Gestures Facial expressions Advantages Vivid Stimulating Commands attention Difficult to ignore Flexible Adaptive Decreased misinterpretation Precise Effectiveness of communication increases with congruence to oral presentation Emphasize meaning Disadvantages Transitory Subject to misinterpretation Precision translation loss Inflexible Easier to ignore Meanings of nonverbal communication not universal Adapted from Exhibit 12.2

4 Communication Media How information is transmitted from sender to receiver Different media have different characteristics (media richness) Personal-impersonal nature Speed in sending and receiving Availability of multiple cues Opportunity to receive immediate and continuing feedback from the receiver Message should be matched to best medium

5 Factors in Media Richness
Rich Media Personal Multiple cues to aid in decoding Immediate feedback Lean Media Impersonal Few cues to aid in decoding Delayed feedback Examples: Rich Lean Face to face Telephone s, memos Adapted from Exhibit 12.3

6 Organizational Context of Communication
Organizational context affects communication Directions Downward, upward, lateral Channels Formal, informal Patterns Communication networks

7 Directions of Communication
LATERAL COMMUNICATION Supervisor Supervisor UPWARD COMMUNICATION Information, questions, suggestions, problems, requests for clarification DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION Goals, objectives, directions, decisions, feedback Subordinate Subordinate LATERAL COMMUNICATION Information, (formal or informal) for joint problem solving Adapted from Exhibit 12.4

8 Channels of Communication
FORMAL CHANNELS Specify individuals responsible for tasks Specify individuals responsible for communicating information above and below them Indicate persons to whom work-related messages should be sent INFORMAL CHANNELS Tend to operate laterally more than vertically Move information quite rapidly Carry both work-related and nonwork information

9 Channels of Communication
FORMAL channels of communication INFORMAL channels of communication CEO Vice President of Marketing Manager Toy Manufacturing Advertising Manager Promotions Manager Supervisor Board Games Testing Supervisor Electronic Games Testing

10 Example of Communication Networks
Salt Lake City New York Boss San Diego New York Managers Denver Divisional Marketing Manager, Los Angeles Seattle Chicago, Retired former colleague Irvine Marketing Researchers Portland San Francisco Los Angeles Subordinates Network 1 Network 2

11 Barriers to Communication
Level Origin of barrier Affects communication between: Inter- personal Selective perception Frame of reference Individual differences Emotion Language Nonverbal cues Individuals or groups Organi- zational Hierarchical (barriers from structure) Functional (barriers between functions) Individuals and/or groups within an organization Individuals and/or groups in different organizations Cultural High/low-context culture Stereotyping Ethnocentrism Cultural distance Individuals or groups in different organizations with different national cultures Individuals or groups from different organizational cultures Individuals or groups form diverse cultural backgrounds Adapted from Exhibit 12.7

12 Improving Communication: Individual Level
Improving Your Listening Skills Listen rather than talking yourself Be more open-minded Develop empathy Listen actively Observe nonverbal cues Improving Your Sending Skills Simplify the language Organize your writing Understand the audience

13 Improving Communication: Organizational Level
Gatekeepers are at the communication interface between separate organizations or different units. They: Increase formal communication Replace face-to-face communication with electronic communication Develop networks Create centralized office to manage communication activities

14 Communication and Negotiation
Process of conferring to arrive at an agreement between different parties, each with their own interests and preferences Why negotiation skills are important for managers: Can be used to solve disagreements in day-to-day activities of the managers organizational unit May be part of a formally appointed negotiating team representing their unit or organization

15 Achieving Effective/Successful Negotiations
Less effective More effective Positions People Involved Maintaining/ Increasing Competition (Win/Lose Focus) Interests Problem/Issue Decreasing/ Lessening Competition (Collaborative Focus)

16 Key Factors in Negotiations
The People Listening skills Orientation toward people High self-esteem Influence in the home organization The Situation Location Physical arrangements Emphasis on speed and time Composition of the negotiating teams The Negotiation Process Itself

17 Stages in the Negotiation Process
Planning and preparation Advance planning and analysis Background research Gathering of relevant information Planning of strategies and tactics Setting objectives Predetermining possible concessions STAGE 1 Planning and Preparation Adapted from Exhibit 12.13

18 Stages in the Negotiation Process
Relationship building between negotiation parties Developing trust Developing personal rapport Establishing long-term association STAGE 2 Relationship Building Between Negotiating Parties STAGE 1 Planning and Preparation Adapted from Exhibit 12.13

19 Stages in the Negotiation Process
Information exchange Learning about the needs and demands of the other set of negotiators Acquiring and exchanging other information STAGE 3 Information Exchange STAGE 2 Relationship Building Between Negotiating Parties STAGE 1 Planning and Preparation Adapted from Exhibit 12.13

20 Stages in the Negotiation Process
Persuasion attempts American managers treat as the most important stage Mixture of approaches Assertive and straightforward Warnings or threats Calculated delays STAGE 4 Persuasion Attempts STAGE 3 Information Exchange STAGE 2 Relationship Building Between Negotiating Parties STAGE 1 Planning and Preparation Adapted from Exhibit 12.13

21 Stages in the Negotiation Process
Concessions and Agreement Concessions/Agreement Permit each party to take away something of value American managers tend to have less leeway for concessions Some use normative appeals such as “it’s your obligation” STAGE 4 Persuasion Attempts STAGE 3 Information Exchange STAGE 2 Relationship Building Between Negotiating Parties STAGE 1 Planning and Preparation Adapted from Exhibit 12.13

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