Presentation on theme: "EDEXCEL IGCSE PHYSICS 4-4 Energy Resources and Electricity Generation"— Presentation transcript:
1 EDEXCEL IGCSE PHYSICS 4-4 Energy Resources and Electricity Generation THIS POWERPOINT IS NOT DUE FOR COMPLETION UNTIL JULY 2012Edexcel IGCSE Physics pages 150 to 159December 4th 2010Content applying to Triple Science only is shown in red type on the next slide and is indicated on subsequent slides by ‘TRIPLE ONLY’
2 Edexcel IGCSE Specification Section 4: Energy resources and energy transferd) Energy resources and electricity generationunderstand the energy transfers involved in generating electricity using:• wind• water• geothermal resources• solar heating systems• solar cells• fossil fuels• nuclear powerdescribe the advantages and disadvantages of methods of large-scale electricity production from various renewable and non-renewable resources.Red type: Triple Science Only
3 Thermal power stations A thermal power station generates electricity by using the heat produced by the burning a fossil fuel such as coal, gas, oil or by the fission of uranium.Over 90% of our electricity is produced by these type of power stations.
4 Thermal power station block diagram BOILERTURBINESGENERATORBOILERFuel is burnt to turn water into high pressure steam.TURBINEHigh pressure steam turns a turbine (like a windmill)GENERATORThe turbine rotates the coils of a generator to produce electricity.
7 Comparison of uranium and fossil fuels coal, gas, oilEnergy released per kg of fuelkWh100 kWhradioactive waste that needs to be stored for many yearsnon-radioactive wasteWasteGreenhouse gasesYes, mostly carbon dioxideNone
8 Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: Most of our electricity is produced by __________ power stations. These use the _______ produced by burning _____ or the fission of __________ to generate electricity.The heat produced is used to change ________ into high pressure steam. This steam is used to turn a _________ which in turn _________ an electrical generator.Over _______ of our electricity is generated by using thermal power stations.thermalfuelsheaturaniumwaterturbinerotates90%WORD SELECTION:rotatesfuelsheat90%uraniumturbinewaterthermal
9 Simulations Power Station Animation - eChalk Generator - Fendt Nuclear Fission - Powerpoint presentation by Richard Miller of 5SJW (2005)Nuclear Fission - Powerpoint presentation that includes a link to the 'mousetrap' demonstrationNuclear Physics - PhET - Start a chain reaction, or introduce non-radioactive isotopes to prevent one. Watch alpha particles escape from a Polonium nucleus, causing radioactive alpha decay. Control energy production in a nuclear reactor!Chain reaction demonstration using mousetraps - University of MichiganBBC Bitesize Revision:Introduction Page on AQA Generating ElectricityTest Bite on Generating ElectricityFossil FuelsNuclear FuelsComparing Sources - includes short and long term costs
10 Renewable energy sources A renewable energy resource is one that will not run out.Renewable energy sources do not produce radioactive waste, greenhouse gases or acid rain.Examples include wind, hydroelectric, wave, tidal, solar and geothermal.Fossil fuels such as coal. gas and oil as well as uranium are non-renewable energy sources.
11 Wind powerWind is used to drive a turbine directly which rotates an electrical generator.A wind farm
12 Wind power versus thermal power stations ADVANTAGESRenewable energy sourceNo greenhouse gasesNo acid rainNo radioactive wasteInexpensive to buildShort start up timeDISADVANTAGESUnreliable – needs wind!Best used in places where they will often be regarded as unsightlyMany turbines are needed to produce the same energy of a small thermal power stationNoiseDanger to wildlife
13 Wave powerWaves can be used to drive an electrical generator.
14 Wave power versus thermal power stations ADVANTAGESRenewableNo greenhouse gasesNo acid rainNo radioactive wasteNo land neededShort start up timeDISADVANTAGESUnreliableCan only be used in areas with suitable wavesProne to storm damageMany needed to produce the same energy of a small thermal power stationDanger to shipping
15 Hydroelectric powerFalling water is used to drive a turbine directly which rotates an electrical generator.The Hoover Dam near Las Vegas
17 Hydroelectric power versus thermal power stations ADVANTAGESRenewableCan produce as much energy as a thermal power stationNo greenhouse gasesNo acid rainNo radioactive wasteShort start up timeDISADVANTAGESCan only be used in mountainous areasA large amount of land needs to be floodedExpensive to build
18 Tidal powerMoving water caused by the tides is used to drive a turbine directly which rotates an electrical generator.Tidal power station at La Rance, BrittanyProposed Severn Estuary Tidal Power Scheme
20 Tidal power versus thermal power stations ADVANTAGESRenewableNo greenhouse gasesNo acid rainNo radioactive wasteShort start up timeDISADVANTAGESVery limited locationsWildlife affectedExpensive to build
22 Solar power (cells)Electricity can be produced directly from the Sun’s radiation using solar cells.
23 Solar power (panels)Solar panels are used to heat water saving electricity or gas use.
24 Solar power versus thermal power stations ADVANTAGESRenewableNo greenhouse gasesNo acid rainNo radioactive wasteShort start up timeDISADVANTAGESUnreliable in the UK! – sunshine is needed for solar cellsCan only be used during the dayOnly 10% of solar energy is converted into electricity by solar cellsMany cells needed to produce the same energy of a small thermal power station
25 Geothermal energyIn some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the surface. The steam can be tapped and used to drive turbines. This is known as geothermal energy.
26 Geothermal versus thermal power stations ADVANTAGESRenewableNo greenhouse gasesNo acid rainNo radioactive wasteShort start up timeDISADVANTAGESVery limited locationsExpensive to build
27 Electricity generation pie-chart Most of our electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels (74% according to the pie chart opposite)Nearly 20% is nuclearLess than 5% is currently generated using renewable sources.
28 Problems with fossil fuels Burning coal, gas and oil produces carbon dioxide. This is a greenhouse gas which causes global warming.Fossil fuel burning can also produce sulfur dioxide gas. This can dissolve in water and produce acid rain which causes damage to forests and buildings. Modern power stations remove most sulfur dioxide producing compounds before burning.Fossil fuels are not renewable. They are running out. Estimates vary between 50 to 200 years to when we will need to find alternative sources of energy.An effect of acid rain
29 Problems with nuclear power stations Nuclear fuel (uranium) does not produce greenhouse gases and it generates times more energy per kilogram than fossil fuels.However:Nuclear waste is radioactive and may have to be stored safely for thousands of years.Although safe in normal operation, accidents can release radioactive material over a large area. The area around Chernobyl in Ukraine has been closed off since 1986.The destroyed Chernobyl nuclear reactor
30 Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: Renewable energy sources will not _____ out and they do not cause __________ gases, acid rain or radioactive waste.However, most of our ___________ is produced using non-renewable sources such as ______ fuels (coal, gas and oil) and _________. These are highly concentrated and ________ energy sources.In the near future we hope to use more renewable sources such as wind, wave and _______ power. This will help us to conserve the remaining _______________ energy sources.rungreenhouseelectricityfossiluraniumreliabletidalnon-renewableWORD SELECTION:fossilnon-renewableelectricityuraniumgreenhousetidalreliablerun
31 Answer the questions on page 159. Energy Resources and Electricity Generation Notes questions from pages 150 to 159Answer the questions on page 159.Verify that you can do all of the items listed in the end of chapter checklist on page 159.