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Communicating Interculturally

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Presentation on theme: "Communicating Interculturally"— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicating Interculturally
CHAPTER 3 Communicating Interculturally

2 Chapter 3 Objectives Discuss trends that have made intercultural business communications so important. Discuss culture and subculture and culture’s four basic characteristics. Delineate the differences between high-context and low context cultures. Recognize cultural differences. Discuss ethnocentrism and stereotyping.

3 Chapter 3 Objectives continued Discuss three ways to improve communication with people who speak English as a second language; then discuss three ways to improve communication with people who do not speak your language at all. Explain why studying other cultures helps you communicate more effectively. Illustrate how word choice affects communication among people from other cultures.

4 Intercultural Communication
The process of sending and receiving messages between people whose cultural backgrounds lead them to interpret verbal and nonverbal signs differently. Two trends contribute to the importance of intercultural communication: Market globalization Cultural diversity

5 Market Globalization Market globalization is the increasing tendency of the world to act as one market: Domestic markets are opening to worldwide competition Technology brings people closer through travel and communication Increasing numbers of people work in multicultural settings

6 Cultural Diversity Encompasses differences in race, gender, age, culture, family structure, religion, physical ability, and educational background Affects how business messages are conceived, planned, sent, received, and interpreted

7 Improving Intercultural Sensitivity
Culture is a shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations, and behaviors. Subcultures are distinct groups that exist within a major culture. Examples of subcultures in the United States Mexican Americans Mormons Wrestling fans Russian immigrants Disabled persons Harvard graduates

8 A Few Basic Concepts About Culture
Culture is learned. Cultures vary in stability. Cultures vary in complexity. Cultures vary in tolerance. Misunderstandings arise when senders encode messages based on the assumptions of their own culture and then receivers decode those messages based on the assumptions of their own, separate culture.

9 Cultural Differences Cultural Context: is the pattern of physical cues, environmental stimuli, and implicit understandings that convey meaning between members of the same culture High-context culture: majority of the message is communicated indirectly (nonverbally) Low-content culture: majority of message is communicated directly (words)

10 High Context Cultures High-context cultures (Japanese, Chinese, Arab, Greek, Mexican, Spanish) tend to rely less on verbal communication and more on the context of nonverbal actions and environmental setting to convey meaning. High context cultures Put less emphasis on the written word Consider personal pledges more important than contracts View the law with flexibility

11 Low Context Cultures Low-context cultures (German, Scandinavian, North American, English, French) tend to rely more on verbal communication and less on circumstances and cues to convey meaning. Low-context cultures Value the written word Consider written agreements binding View the law strictly

12 Creating Ethical Messages
When communicating across cultures, apply these four basic principles: Seek mutual ground to allow clearest possible exchange of information. Send and receive messages without judgment. Send messages that are honest. Show respect for cultural differences.

13 Recognizing Cultural Differences
Negotiating styles Decision-making process Problem-solving techniques Ethics Status Manners Time Personal space Body language

14 Overcoming Ethnocentrism
Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own cultural background is superior to that of others. Stereotyping is predicting behavior based on particular groups or classes. To overcome ethnocentrism, Acknowledge distinctions Avoid assumptions Avoid judgments

15 Improving Communication Across Cultures
To communicate more effectively with people from other cultures, you need to Overcome language barriers Study other cultures Develop effective written skills Develop effective oral skills Language barriers exist because Your culture and subculture dictate the words you choose to use Words can be interpreted in more than one way

16 Unfortunate Translations in International Marketing
English Translation Company/product Dairy Association “Got Milk?” “Are you lactating?” (Mexico) Chevrolet - car Nova “No va” = “doesn’t go” (Latin America) Coors Beer “Turn It Loose” “Suffer from diarrhea” (Latin America) Pepsi Cola “Come Alive with Pepsi ” “Pepsi brings your ancestors back from the grave” (China) Clairol – curling iron “Mist Stick” Sounds like slang for manure (Germany) Secured from the Internet

17 Overcoming Language Barriers
Breaking Through ESL Barriers Avoid using slang and idioms. Pay attention to local accents and pronunciation. Be aware of vocal variations. Breaking Through Foreign Language Barriers Learn a foreign language. Use an intermediary or translator. Offer language training programs. Study other cultures.

18 Developing Intercultural Communication Skills
Assume differences. Take responsibility. Withhold judgment. Show respect. Empathize. Tolerate ambiguity. Recognize bias. Learn patience and persistence. Be flexible. Emphasize some common ground. Send clear messages. Deal with the individual. Know when to be direct. Avoid the superficial. Evaluate feedback to assess your hypothesis.

19 Writing Effective Messages to International Audiences
Use plain English. Be clear. Avoid slang and idioms. Be brief. Use short paragraphs. Use transitional elements.

20 Improve Your Oral Skills
Try to eliminate noise. Look for feedback. Rephrase sentences when necessary. Clarify your true intent with repetition and examples. Don’t talk down to the other person.

21 Improve Your Oral Skills
continued Use objective, accurate language. Listen carefully and patiently. Adapt your conversation style to the other person’s. Clarify what will happen next.

22 Test Your Knowledge Let’s Discuss
How have market globalization and cultural diversity contributed to the increased importance of intercultural communication? What is the relationship between culture and subculture? What are the four basic characteristics of culture?

23 Test Your Knowledge Let’s Discuss
continued How do high-context cultures differ from low-context cultures? In addition to the contextual differences, what other categories of cultural differences exist? What four principles apply to ethical intercultural communication? What is ethnocentrism, and how can it be overcome in communication?

24 Test Your Knowledge Let’s Discuss
continued Why is it a good idea to avoid slang and idioms when addressing a multicultural audience? What are some ways to improve oral skills when communicating with people of other cultures? What is the purpose of back-translation when preparing a message in another language?

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