2 Chapter 3 ObjectivesDiscuss trends that have made intercultural business communications so important.Discuss culture and subculture and culture’s four basic characteristics.Delineate the differences between high-context and low context cultures.Recognize cultural differences.Discuss ethnocentrism and stereotyping.
3 Chapter 3 ObjectivescontinuedDiscuss three ways to improve communication with people who speak English as a second language; then discuss three ways to improve communication with people who do not speak your language at all.Explain why studying other cultures helps you communicate more effectively.Illustrate how word choice affects communication among people from other cultures.
4 Intercultural Communication The process of sending and receiving messages between people whose cultural backgrounds lead them to interpret verbal and nonverbal signs differently.Two trends contribute to the importance of intercultural communication:Market globalizationCultural diversity
5 Market GlobalizationMarket globalization is the increasing tendency of the world to act as one market:Domestic markets are opening to worldwide competitionTechnology brings people closer through travel and communicationIncreasing numbers of people work in multicultural settings
6 Cultural DiversityEncompasses differences in race, gender, age, culture, family structure, religion, physical ability, and educational backgroundAffects how business messages are conceived, planned, sent, received, and interpreted
7 Improving Intercultural Sensitivity Culture is a shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations, and behaviors.Subcultures are distinct groups that exist within a major culture.Examples of subcultures in the United StatesMexican AmericansMormonsWrestling fansRussian immigrantsDisabled personsHarvard graduates
8 A Few Basic Concepts About Culture Culture is learned.Cultures vary in stability.Cultures vary in complexity.Cultures vary in tolerance.Misunderstandings arise when senders encode messages based on the assumptions of their own culture and then receivers decode those messages based on the assumptions of their own, separate culture.
9 Cultural DifferencesCultural Context: is the pattern of physical cues, environmental stimuli, and implicit understandings that convey meaning between members of the same cultureHigh-context culture: majority of the message is communicated indirectly (nonverbally)Low-content culture: majority of message is communicated directly (words)
10 High Context CulturesHigh-context cultures (Japanese, Chinese, Arab, Greek, Mexican, Spanish) tend to rely less on verbal communication and more on the context of nonverbal actions and environmental setting to convey meaning.High context culturesPut less emphasis on the written wordConsider personal pledges more important than contractsView the law with flexibility
11 Low Context CulturesLow-context cultures (German, Scandinavian, North American, English, French) tend to rely more on verbal communication and less on circumstances and cues to convey meaning.Low-context culturesValue the written wordConsider written agreements bindingView the law strictly
12 Creating Ethical Messages When communicating across cultures, apply these four basic principles:Seek mutual ground to allow clearest possible exchange of information.Send and receive messageswithout judgment.Send messages that are honest.Show respect for cultural differences.
13 Recognizing Cultural Differences Negotiating stylesDecision-making processProblem-solving techniquesEthicsStatusMannersTimePersonal spaceBody language
14 Overcoming Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own cultural background is superior to that of others.Stereotyping is predicting behavior based on particular groups or classes.To overcome ethnocentrism,Acknowledge distinctionsAvoid assumptionsAvoid judgments
15 Improving Communication Across Cultures To communicate more effectively with people from other cultures, you need toOvercome language barriersStudy other culturesDevelop effective written skillsDevelop effective oral skillsLanguage barriers exist becauseYour culture and subculture dictate the words you choose to useWords can be interpreted in more than one way
16 Unfortunate Translations in International Marketing EnglishTranslationCompany/productDairy Association“Got Milk?”“Are you lactating?” (Mexico)Chevrolet - carNova“No va” = “doesn’t go” (Latin America)Coors Beer“Turn It Loose”“Suffer from diarrhea” (Latin America)Pepsi Cola“Come Alive with Pepsi ”“Pepsi brings your ancestors back from the grave” (China)Clairol – curling iron“Mist Stick”Sounds like slang for manure (Germany)Secured from the Internet
17 Overcoming Language Barriers Breaking Through ESL BarriersAvoid using slang and idioms.Pay attention to local accents and pronunciation.Be aware of vocal variations.Breaking Through Foreign Language BarriersLearn a foreign language.Use an intermediary or translator.Offer language training programs.Study other cultures.
18 Developing Intercultural Communication Skills Assume differences.Take responsibility.Withhold judgment.Show respect.Empathize.Tolerate ambiguity.Recognize bias.Learn patience and persistence.Be flexible.Emphasize some common ground.Send clear messages.Deal with the individual.Know when to be direct.Avoid the superficial.Evaluate feedback to assess your hypothesis.
19 Writing Effective Messages to International Audiences Use plain English.Be clear.Avoid slang and idioms.Be brief.Use short paragraphs.Use transitional elements.
20 Improve Your Oral Skills Try to eliminate noise.Look for feedback.Rephrase sentences when necessary.Clarify your true intent with repetition and examples.Don’t talk down to the other person.
21 Improve Your Oral Skills continuedUse objective, accurate language.Listen carefully and patiently.Adapt your conversation style to the other person’s.Clarify what will happen next.
22 Test Your Knowledge Let’s Discuss How have market globalization and cultural diversity contributed to the increased importance of intercultural communication?What is the relationship between culture and subculture?What are the four basic characteristics of culture?
23 Test Your Knowledge Let’s Discuss continuedHow do high-context cultures differ from low-context cultures?In addition to the contextual differences, what other categories of cultural differences exist?What four principles apply to ethical intercultural communication?What is ethnocentrism, and how can it be overcome in communication?
24 Test Your Knowledge Let’s Discuss continuedWhy is it a good idea to avoid slang and idioms when addressing a multicultural audience?What are some ways to improve oral skills when communicating with people of other cultures?What is the purpose of back-translation when preparing a message in another language?