3 Learning ObjectivesExplain the steps Kennedy took to change American foreign policy.Analyze the causes and effects of the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis.Assess the results of the Berlin Crisis and other foreign policy events of the 1960s.
4 Terms and PeopleJohn F. Kennedy – a Democratic senator who was elected President in 1960Richard M. Nixon – former Republican vice president under Eisenhower who ran for President in and lostFidel Castro – communist leader of Cubaflexible response – a defense policy in which the U.S. military is prepared to fight any type of conflict
5 Terms and People (continued) Peace Corps – a U.S. program that sent volunteers to developing countries to assist in education, healthcare, and economicsAlliance for Progress – a U.S. policy that aimed to renew the former Good Nation Policy toward Latin American nations by providing economic aidBay of Pigs invasion – a CIA-led force of Cuban exiles that attacked CubaNikita Khrushchev – the Soviet Union’s prime ministerMD: --Changed “continued” to 18 pt. plain face
6 Terms and People (continued) Cuban missile crisis – in October, 1962 a confrontation of threats between Kennedy and Khrushchevhot line – a telephone line between Washington, D.C. and Moscow to improve communication between the United States and the Soviet UnionNuclear Test Ban Treaty – in 1963, the first agreement limiting nuclear testing between the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and thirty-six other countriesBerlin Wall – a wall built by the Soviet Union to separate East Berlin from West BerlinMD: --Changed “continued” to 18 pt. plain face
7 Why It MattersHow did Kennedy respond to the continuing challenges of the Cold War?When Kennedy took office, he faced the spread of communism abroad and the threat of nuclear war.His enthusiasm and commitment to change offered hope that the challenges of the Cold War could be met.MD: --Added animation to question: After previous> Entrance> Fly In> Fast
8 Kennedy Defeats Nixon in 1960 President Eisenhower ends his second term of the Presidency with a speech describing the “military-industrial complex.”
9 Kennedy Defeats Nixon in 1960 U.S. Navy World War II, Pacific TheatreElected to Congress 1946Young, intelligent, hard-workingPassion for foreign affairsU.S. Navy World War II, Pacific TheatreElected to Congress 1946Young, intelligent, hard-workingPassion for foreign affairs
10 Kennedy Defeats Nixon in 1960 RepublicanSelf-madeFamily struggled to make a livingQuakerVice-President of the United States under EisenhowerDemocratSon of wealthy familyFather ambassador to England and at one time presidential contenderWar hero – PT 109CatholicSenator from Massachusetts
11 Kennedy Defeats Nixon in 1960 John F. Kennedy won a close presidential election in 1960, defeating Richard M. Nixon.Kennedy photo, HSUS: page 952.
12 Kennedy Defeats Nixon in 1960 Inaugural speech of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy
13 Kennedy Launches New Cold War Strategies He built up both conventional and special military forces.He created a flexible response defense policy.He developed the Alliance for Progress to improve relations with Latin American countries.He created the Peace Corps.MD: --Changed table (double click table): removed outside borders, change color of internal borders, removed fill, adjusted internal margins. Copy and pasted gradated box from Clip Art PPT and placed behind revised table.13
14 Kennedy Launches New Cold War Strategies Eisenhower preferred to build up massive nuclear forcesSaw conventional armies and navies as too expensiveNuclear forces were a “bigger bang for the buck”Defense budget did drop from $50.5 billion to $35.8 billionAssumed any future major war would be nuclear
15 Kennedy Launches New Cold War Strategies Eisenhower war making policy was simple:United States would respond to any foe with overwhelming force, perhaps nuclear forceKnown as massive retaliation
16 Kennedy Launches New Cold War Strategies Kennedy adopts the warfighting theory of flexible responseGoal to was to give the President more war options that a massive nuclear response to meet any future military threatA Soviet nuclear first-strike on the United States would still be met with our nuclear retaliation – much like massive retaliationHowever, flexible response allowed for three stages of escalation:
17 Kennedy Launches New Cold War Strategies Direct defense: In case of a conventional Soviet attack (non-nuclear ) US would try to stop Soviets with our own conventional weapons. Likely battlefield would be a Soviet invasion of West Germany.Deliberate Escalation: If US and NATO would losing the conventional war, we would use a limited number of tactical nuclear weapons (nuclear artillery) to defeat the Soviet armies. Likely would have happened because NATO conventional armies were badly outnumbered by Soviet divisions.
18 Kennedy Launches New Cold War Strategies General Nuclear Response: Unleash our strategic nuclear forces in attack upon the Soviet homeland, and perhaps China as well.
20 Kennedy Launches New Cold War Strategies Kennedy also adopted the war theory of counterinsurgencyOrder formation of special units to combat communist guerillas – U.S. Special Forces, The Green Berets – their motto, “To Free the Oppressed”
21 Kennedy Launches New Cold War Strategies Kennedy’s new cold war strategy also included nonmilitary, humanitarian assistanceAlliance for Progress (focused on South America)Peace CorpGoal was to assist undeveloped nations and foster goodwillVisible, humane alternative to communist “wars of liberation.”
22 Kennedy Launches New Cold War Strategies As ambassadors of American goodwill, the Peace Corps sent American volunteers to developing nations to assist with such services as education and healthcare.MD: --Adjust line spacing to make easier to read.Photo of Peace Corp worker, HSUS: pg. 955.
23 Confronting Communism in Cuba The sudden threat of Castro and Communism in nearby Cuba led to two major confrontations.Bay of Pigs invasionCuban missile crisisKennedy launched an attack against Cuba, led by Cuban exiles.Intelligence confirmed that the Soviets were building nuclear missile sites in Cuba that threatened U.S. cities.
24 Confronting Communism in Cuba In April, 1961 the United States invaded Cuba’s Bay of Pigs.Conceived by the CIA to overthrow Fidel Castro, the invasion involved Cuban exiles who had fled Castro’s rule and settled in the United States.The Bay of Pigs mission failed.The President said, however, that he would continue to resist efforts by the communists to control other countries in Western Hemisphere.Kennedy took responsibility for the mission’s failure.24
25 The Cuban Missile Crisis In October, 1962, American intelligence agencies photographed Soviet nuclear missile installationsin Cuba.Missile launch site photo, HSUS: p. 957.
26 The Cuban Missile Crisis The missiles at these Cuban sites threatened major cities in the United States.Missile range map, HSUS: p. 957.
27 The Cuban Missile Crisis Soviets sought to respond to US/NATO nuclear missile deployments in EuropeKhrushchev thought Kennedy would not respond
30 To resolve the Cuban missile crisis, Kennedy worked Results of the CrisisTo resolve the Cuban missile crisis, Kennedy workedIn PublicBehind the ScenesIn a television address, Kennedy blamed Khrushchev for reckless action that threatened world peace.Kennedy initiated a U.S. naval blockade of Cuba.Kennedy told the Soviets that the United States would remove U.S. missiles from Turkey and Italy if the Soviets removed their missiles from Cuba.30
31 After six tense days, the Soviets backed off. Results of the CrisisAfter six tense days, the Soviets backed off.Nikita Khrushchev agreed to honor the blockade and removed the missiles.The crisis prompted the two leaders to establish a period of détente. They set up a hot line between Washington, D.C. and Moscow to improve communication.
32 Results of the Crisis Kennedy’s speech at American University
33 Results of the CrisisIn 1963 the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and thirty-six other countries signed the first Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.This treaty ended above-ground nuclear testing.33
34 Results of the Crisis What if…? Hyperlink via FirstClass Bookmarks
35 Disagreement over Berlin led to the building of the Berlin Wall. The Berlin CrisisDisagreement over Berlin led to the building of the Berlin Wall.Kennedy refused.Khrushchev insisted the U.S. end its military presence in West Berlin.Khrushchev ordered the building of the Berlin Wall separating East and West Berlin.35
36 The Berlin CrisisIn response to Khrushchev’s actions, Kennedy requested a large increase in military spending.He also sent 1,500 more U.S. soldiers to West Berlin.The Berlin Wall became a symbol of the gulf betweenthe democratic Westthe communist Eastand the communist East