Presentation on theme: "HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 1 PSYCHOLOGY 3050: Social Construction of Mind"— Presentation transcript:
1 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 1 PSYCHOLOGY 3050: Social Construction of Mind Dr. Jamie DroverSN-3094,--Fall Semester, 2012
2 Sociocultural perspective Focus on species typical structure-function relationships that underlie thoughtCognitive universalsAttention, learning, memory, information processingHowever, cognition develops in the child who develops in a familial, social, and cultural context
3 Sociocultural perspective Cognitive development is inseparable from its cultural contextOnly humans have developed cultureProvides a unique source of influenceHow we develop and learn to think is primarily a function of the social and cultural environments in which we are rearedFamily, school, community, social institutions, etc.
4 Sociocultural perspective Focuses is on what makes us different, rather than on the universals that make us similar.
5 Interaction: Four interrelated levels of development are important Ontogenetic: development of the individual across the lifespanMicrogenetic: changes over brief periods of timeChanges in problem-solving over a school yearPhylogenetic: development of a species through evolutionUnderstanding species development (history) informs individual developmentSociohistorical: changes that occur in one’s culture, values, norms, and technologiesLiteracy, info technologies
6 Tools of Intellectual Adaptation We enter the world with elementary mental functions.Culture provides us with tools of intellectual adaptation.Methods of thinking and problem-solving that children internalize from interactions with more competent members of society.Enable children to use mental functions adaptively, i.e., how to think.
7 Tools of Intellectual Adaptation These cultural tools do indeed affect development.Some cultures have numbers only for 1, 2, and “many”.Members of these cultures can operate on small amounts, but have difficulty with larger numbers.
8 Tools of Intellectual Adaptation Even more subtle differences in number names can affect development.Miller et al. (1995) provided evidence that Chinese children are superior counters at 4 and 5 years of age than American children.Numbering system is more logical.
9 Tools of Intellectual Adaptation Culture also transmits beliefs and values.What to thinkThe relevance of cultural tools can be seen in the computer.Access to and the use of computers will have effects both between and within cultures.Computers will affect how we think and process information.
10 The Social Origins of Early Cognitive Competencies Vygotsky emphasized the social contributions to cognitive development.He believed that all higher psychological processes originate socially and then develop on a psychological plane.General genetic law of cultural development
11 The Social Origins of Early Cognitive Competencies Much of what children learn occurs within the context of cooperative or collaborative dialogues between a skillful tutor and a novice pupil.i.e., collaborative or guided learningThe pupil seeks to understand the tutor’s instruction and then internalizes this information.This fosters cognitive growth (see puzzle eg, p 83).
12 Zone of Proximal Development The difference between a child’s actual developmental level determined by independent problem solving and his/her level of potential development as determined through problem-solving under the guidance of othersNew cognitive growth can occur in “the zone” and instruction should be targeted there
13 Zone of Proximal Development Children can learn material that is just a bit more advanced than what they know at any given pointToo advanced – can’t be incorporatedScaffolding occurs when experts are sensitive to the abilities of a novice and work to guide the child’s performance so that his/her understanding increases
14 Zone of Proximal Development Scaffolding will be most effective in the “zone of proximal development”Commonly observed as parents and young children solve a problem or have a conversation together.See dice example pp
15 Apprenticeship in Thinking and Guided Participation Rogoff (1990) viewed transactions between adults and children as reflecting “apprenticeship in thinking”novice improves their skills and understanding through participation with more skilled partners in culturally organized activities.All the responsibility is not placed on adults.Rogoff extended the idea of “zone of proximal development.”
16 Apprenticeship in Thinking and Guided Participation Rogoff applied to “guided participation” to adult child interactions during explicit instructions, but also to day to day activities and everyday life.Doing chores, watching TVIn post-industrial societies, transactions between parents and children are designed for the schooling that will follow.Context-independent learning
17 Apprenticeship in Thinking and Guided Participation Another school-related skill associated with parent-child interactions is reading.Whitehurst (1988): interactive reading led to gains in verbal expressivenessParents use scaffolding when reading to children.They are more directive when children are younger, but less so as children get older.
18 Apprenticeship in Thinking and Guided Participation Parents and older siblings can also guide children’s development in symbolic play.Requires mental representationMothers tend to bring out high levels of symbolic play in their children.Bring out challenging play interactionsSymbolic play is related to other aspects of cognitive development.E.g. theory of mind
19 Apprenticeship in Thinking and Guided Participation Guided participation is universal, but there are differences in the nature of guided participation.Occurs in two culturesCultures in which children are segregated from adults and receive instruction in school (middle class)Cultures in which are in close contact with adults while performing culturally important activities (traditional)Rogoff studied interactions and guided participation in both types of cultures (pp 90-91).
20 Apprenticeship in Thinking and Guided Participation Middle-class communitiesplace more emphasis on verbal instruction and provide plenty of structure.Use praise to motivate children.Traditional communitiesUse explicit nonverbal instructionDon’t provide direct instructionChildren possess good observational skills
21 Apprenticeship in Thinking and Guided Participation In different cultures, different forms of guided participation are likely to be used.One form is no better than the other.Cognitive development is rooted in one’s culture.
22 Implications for Education Vygotsky stressed active learning and assessment of what the child already knows.Teachers should structure activities and provide helpful hints or instructions tailored to the child’s abilities.Cooperative learning between children could also be used.
23 Implications for Education Freund (1990) found that children who practiced a dollhouse furniture sorting task with their mother showed dramatic improvement.Cooperative learning between students is also beneficialEnhances motivation, requires explanation, higher quality strategies.