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Why do we learn about contraceptives?

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Presentation on theme: "Why do we learn about contraceptives?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Why do we learn about contraceptives?
Why are contraceptives used in family planning? If pregnancies aren’t planned, couples who are fertile will have a child EVERY 14 MONTHS for 25 YEARS. This will make you the parent of 21 children

2 The Duggars (19 Kids and Counting)

3 Why do we learn about contraceptives?
Other reasons: Experts in child development recommend 3-4 years between children Less than 2 years of spacing is difficult for mothers who need time for their bodies to return to normal Two children under the age of 2 can create added stress on the family

4 Developing Child; Teaching Sexuality Canada
Conception and Genes Developing Child; Teaching Sexuality Canada

5 Conception About once each month, an ovum (female cell or egg) is released by one of a woman’s ovaries. The egg moves through the fallopian tube to the uterus, the organ where the baby develops during pregnancy. The journey takes about two or three days. When the egg reaches the uterus, it usually disintegrates and is flushed out of the body with the menstrual flow (or period).

6 The Menstrual Cycle Copyright 2009 – Alberta Health Services –

7 Conception Sometimes, however, the egg meets and is fertilized by a sperm or male cell.

8 Sperm Production Adapted from Sexuality: An Education Resource Book, Canada: Globe/Modem Curriculum Press, page 241 Copyright 2009 – Alberta Health Services –

9 Conception When the ovum and sperm unite, conception takes place, and pregnancy begins.

10 Fertilization Copyright 2009 – Alberta Health Services –

11 Fertilization Fertilization can take place only two or three days after the ovum has been released. However, sperm can live up to seven days so there is actually a period of about 10 days each month during which a female can become pregnant.

12 Fetal Development The baby’s development is often grouped into three stages: Period of the Zygote Period of the Embryo Period of the Fetus

13 Period of the Zygote Zygote: fertilized egg
This period lasts about 2 weeks The Zygote travels down the fallopian tube and attaches itself to the thickened lining of the uterus. This lining provides a soft, warm bed for the zygote to draw nourishment from the mother’s body. The zygote grows by cell division. (12; 24) By the end of 2 weeks the zygote is the size of a pinhead.

14 Implantation Copyright 2009 – Alberta Health Services –

15 The Genetic Package Each person inherits many characteristics from his or her parents. Physical Build Skin Colour Hair Texture and Color Eye Colour and Shape Ear Shape and Size Blood Type Musical ability Medical conditions

16 The Genetic Package How does this happen?
Heredity: characteristics a child receives from parents. At conception, every human baby receives 46 chromosomes: tiny threadlike particles in the nucleus of every cell. These chromosomes come in 23 pairs. The father’s sperm and the mother’s ovum both contribute a chromosome to each pair. Each chromosome has thousands of genes, the units that determine the child’s inherited characteristics.


18 CELL: Basic unit of all living matter (Adult = over 10 trillion cells)
CYTOPLASM: Substance of a cell outside of the nucleus NUCLEUS: Central point of cell / contains genetic coding for maintaining life systems and issuing commands for growth & reproduction CHROMOSOMES: 46 in each Nucleus (23 pairs) GENES: bands on chromosomes (thousands of genes) DNA on genes (billions of DNA)

19 The Genetic Package For every inherited characteristic, a person receives two copies of a gene—one from the mother, one from the father. When both are the same, the child has that characteristic.

20 DOMINATE Gene: More powerful - trait seen in person
RECESSIVE Gene: Weaker and hides in the background. Trait can only determine when two of them are present - may show up in future generations. CARRIER: Has a recessive gene that is not visible SEX-LINKED: Mother passes the recessive X to son Color-blind male receives the trait from his mother. The mother is usually not color-blind herself. B = BROWN eyes (dominate) b = BLUE eyes (recessive) BB = BROWN eyes bb = BLUE eyes Bb = BROWN eyes but carry the recessive BLUE eye gene

21 The Genetic Package Tongue Rolling Free Earlobes Brown Hair Curly Hair
Dominant Traits Recessive Traits Tongue Rolling Free Earlobes Brown Hair Curly Hair Brown Eyes Dimples Freckles Widow’s Peak Hairline Broad Lips Non-tongue rolling Attached Earlobes Blonde Hair Straight Hair Blue Eyes No Dimples No Freckles No Widow’s Peak Thin Lips

22 Making A Unique Person Heredity explains why brothers and sisters often resemble each other—and why they can look quite different. Each sperm or egg cell contains a different combination of genes. When they combine in a fertilized egg, they produce a unique individual.

23 Genetics - Sex Determination
Adapted from Sexuality: An Education Resource Book, Canada: Globe/Modem Cirriculum Press, page 289 Copyright 2009 – Alberta Health Services –

24 Sex Chromosomes Female Sex Cells XX (Ovum or Egg)
Male Sex Cells XY (Sperm) Baby Girl = XX Baby Boy = XY Gender is determined by the father! Someone should have told King Henry VIII!

25 Joke A woman had identical twins and gave them up for adoption. One of them went to a family in Egypt and was named “Amal”. The other went to a family in Spain and was named “Juan”. Years later, Juan sent a picture of himself to his mom. Upon receiving the picture, she told her husband that she wished she also had a picture of Amal. Her husband responded, “But they are twins! It you’ve seen Juan, you’ve seen Amal!

26 Multiple Births Sometimes a pregnant woman gives birth to more than one baby. This is set at conception or soon after. Sometimes the mass of cells splits in half soon after fertilization. Each clump of cells continues to divide and grow into a separate embryo resulting in IDENTICAL TWINS. They are always the same sex and have very similar characteristics because they both began as one zygote.

27 Identical Twins Adapted from Sexuality: An Education Resource Book, Canada: Globe/Modem Cirriculum Press, page 301 Copyright 2009 – Alberta Health Services –

28 Multiple Births FRATERNAL TWINS form when two eggs are released at the same time and each is fertilized. They grow side by side in the uterus. Because they result from the union of different eggs and sperm, fraternal twins are no more alike in term of heredity than any other siblings. Unlike identical twins, they may even be opposite sexes.

29 Adapted from Sexuality: An Education Resource Book, Canada: Globe/Modem Cirriculum Press, page 302
Copyright 2009 – Alberta Health Services –

30 Kian and Remee

31 Kian and Remee How did this happen?
Two eggs were fertilized at the same time Both father and mother were mixed race Mothers are both white; Fathers are both black Kian inherited black genes while Remee inherited the white genes. The odds of this happening are 1,000,000 to 1

32 Multiple Births In the case of CONJOINED TWINS, Ovum splits apart, but the separation is not completed. Babies are joined at some part of their bodies.

33 General Facts on Multiples in Canada
Incidence of twins is 1 in 90 births (without fertility treatments) Incidence of triplets is 1 in 8,100 births (without fertility treatments) Incidents of quadruplets is 1 in 729,000 births (without fertility treatments) Incidence of quintuplets is 1 in 65,610,000 births (without fertility treatments)

34 What 4 FACTORS may contribute to Multiple Births?
1) History in the family 2) Increased hormones naturally More than 1 egg released 3) Fertility Drugs More than 1 egg released to increase likelihood of conceiving. This has caused an increase in the rate of multiple births. 4) Age 32-36

35 Infertility Not all couples who want to have children are able to become pregnant. People who have problems with fertility often feel they aren’t normal. Many feed that they are alone in facing this situation. Medical and counseling support can help them overcome these feelings.

36 Options for Infertile Couples
Adoption Taking legal responsibilities and rights for a child already born. Artificial Insemination Doctor injects sperm into a woman’s uterus with a special needle. Sperm may be husbands or donor’s. In vitro fertilization Used when woman has damaged fallopian tubes (or other reasons). In a small glass dish, a doctor combines a mature egg and sperm. If fertilization takes place the doctor placed the zygote in the woman’s uterus. If the zygote attaches itself to the uterus, a normal pregnancy takes place.

37 Options for Infertile Couples
Ovum Transfer This procedure uses and egg taken from a female donor and in vitro fertilization. It may be used by women who lack working ovaries or who have inherited disorders. Surrogate Mother A woman becomes pregnant for another couple. She may carry a couple’s fertilized egg removed from the biological mother because she is unable to carry a pregnancy to completion. Other surrogates are artificially inseminated with sperm from the husband of an infertile woman. This process usually includes legal arrangements.

38 Questions Raised As technology continues to advance, other options may be available. However, not everyone thinks these alternatives are acceptable. The use of ovum transfers or surrogate mothers is especially controversial. These practices may raise ethical issues.

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