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The Endocrine System Glands & Hormones

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Presentation on theme: "The Endocrine System Glands & Hormones"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Endocrine System Glands & Hormones
Chapter 12

2 Hormones Chemical messengers that have specific effects on certain cells or organs in the body Released directly into the bloodstream Regulate growth, metabolism, reproduction & behavior Some effect MANY tissues: growth hormone, thyroid hormone & insulin Some effect SPECIFIC tissues: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) & Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Specific tissues are called “Target Tissues”

3 Endocrine Glands, Their Hormones & Their Functions
Pituitary Gland Thyroid Gland Growth Hormone (GH) Growth of all body tissue Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones Thyroxine Increases metabolic rate influencing both physical & mental activities required for normal growth

4 Parathyroids Pancreas Parathyroid Hormone Insulin
Regulates exchange of calcium between blood & bones; increases calcium level in blood Insulin Aids transport of glucose into cells; required for cellular metabolism of foods, especially glucose; decreases blood sugar levels

5 Testes Ovaries Testosterone Estrogen
Stimulates growth & development of male sexual organs (testes & penis) plus development of secondary sex characteristics, such as hair growth on face & body and deepening of voice; stimulates maturation of sperm cells Estrogen Stimulates growth of primary female sexual organs (uterus & fallopian tubes) plus development of secondary sex characteristics, such as breasts, plus changes in the pelvis to a broader shape

6 Disorders Associated with Endocrine Dysfunction
Hormone Hypersecretion Hyposecretion Growth Gigantism Dwarfism Thyroid Grave’s Disease Cretinism Myxedema Insulin Hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia

7 Hormones Used for Treatment
Growth Hormone – for children with a deficiency in GH Insulin – for diabetes Adrenal Steroids – for relief of inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and asthma Epinephrine – stimulates heart muscle, treats asthma attacks & acute allergic reactions Thyroid Hormones – for cretinism in children (lack of growth & mental development) and myxedema in adults (mentally & physically sluggish)

8 Hormones & Stress Physical injury, disease, emotional distress/anxiety and even pleasure involves a reponse from the endocrine system Hormones can help the body meet stressful situations Overproduction, however, can be harmful and lead to: high blood pressure, heart disease, ulcers & headaches

9 Aging and the Endocrine System
Loss of muscle and bone tissue Adult Onset (Type 2) Diabetes from the decrease of insulin secretion Decline in sex hormones Decrease in bone mass leading to Osteoporosis Decrease in growth hormone

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