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No strong central authority. Emperor elected and could not accumulate power to hand down to next generation (had to bargain away gains in order to get.

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Presentation on theme: "No strong central authority. Emperor elected and could not accumulate power to hand down to next generation (had to bargain away gains in order to get."— Presentation transcript:



3 No strong central authority. Emperor elected and could not accumulate power to hand down to next generation (had to bargain away gains in order to get elected) Treaty of Utrecht (1715 - electors from seven to nine (Bavaria and Hanover) About 300 princes with many individual powers. Outside powers influenced elections and emperors. "Germanic liberties" - freedom of the member states from control by emperor. Princes wanted to keep it that way. Diet with Protestant and Catholic houses that never agree. "Perpetual Diet" that does nothing for 100+ years (began 1663) One-third to one-half of the population destroyed in Thirty Years' War, which marks beginning of HRE decline.

4 Very big and hard to govern. Consisted of Poland proper and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Population segregation (Poles, Germans, Ukrainians, Byeolorussians, Jews, Lithuanians, Latvians) Official language is Latin, official religion Roman Catholicism Elected king similar to HREmperor Aristocracy numerous and powerful (called szlachta) "Polish liberties" Lots of factions and diets. Central Diet was without power to pass anything unless everyone agreed. Could be exploded (disbanded) and often was (Liberum Veto) No middle class, army, courts, officials, or income for the king. Had no monopoly on law and force. John Sobieski's last great act--helped save Vienna from the Turks 1529. Partitioned in eighteenth century.

5 Very big. Muslim. No lines between secular world and religions world (especially in law) Law defined by the Koran, but only applied to Muslims. Tolerated Christians because they paid tribute. Greek Orthodox church became an intermediary between sultan and many subjects. Tension between ethnic minorities. "Extraterritorial" trading privileges for various countries (esp. France), like China in nineteenth/twentieth centuries. Led to no middle class because trading was done by outside forces. Had armies of Christian children that had been stolen, made into eunuchs, and raised in the military (janissaries). No strong political authority, but strong religious authority.


7 Previous Spanish and HRE Hapsburg connections failed. Made up of three pieces, each of which had its own diet Hereditary provinces Kingdom of Bohemia (St. Wenceslas) Kingdom of Hungary (St. Stephen) Multi-ethnic Strong central powers (cabinet). Subjugated nobility, taxed nobles, but allowed local authority (so nobles promptly subjugated robots). Religious toleration.

8 Vienna vs. Turks in 1683 (France supported Turks). Saved by John Sobieski and Duke of Lorraine Prince Eugene of Savoy: French, but founder of modern Austrian state. 1679 - Battle of Zenta (drove Turks out of Hungary) 1699 - Peace of Karlowitz (Turks yielded most of Hungary and Transylvania and Croatia to Hapsburgs) 1714 - Treaty of Rastadt (War of Spanish Succession). Got Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Naples. 1739 - Peace of Belgrade stopped Savoy's eastward expansion into Turkish territory. Held up until twentieth century. Seaport at Trieste. Taxed church, sold monopolies. 1713 - Archduke of Hungary Charles VI issues Pragmatic Sanction. Has to make lots of concessions, but eventually everyone agrees so that daughter Maria Theresa will inherit everything. By 1740 Filled basin enclosed by Apline, Bohemian and Carpathian mtns. No central diet. Three regional diets like Estates in France (sense of liberty, but no real power). Hapsburgs got all three crowns.

9 1415 - Hohenzollerns come to power in Brandenburg. Perennial goal is to connect provinces. Frederick William (Great Elector), 1640-88 Junkers (nobility) were taxed and encouraged to serve in civil service and the army. Power based on alliance with aristocracy. Junkers had complete domination over the serfs on their estates. Program of religious toleration allows 20,000 Huguenots and lots of Polish Jews intot eh country, which advanced it culturally. Government runs the economy to pay for the army. Mercantilism, monopolies by the state.

10 Frederick I (King in Prussia), 1688-1713 Concerned with the arts, not the army. Sent troops to help the Hapsburg HREmperor in War of Spanish Succession and received title "King in Prussia" in return, which he passed to his son. Palaces.

11 Frederick William I ("Sergeant King"/"Old Fritz")), 1713-1740 Spartan. Crazy--always wore same uniform and went around hitting people with a stick. Miser, which led to increase in state income. Doubles army so it's the 3rd largest in Europe (Prussia is 13th largest country), but doesn't ever use it. School for cadets. Potsdam Guard.

12 Frederick II (Frederick the Great) 1740-1786) Connects all the provinces! Yay! Invaded Silesia in 1740 (starts War of Austrian Succession), retained it during the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), and helped partition Poland in 1772. Enlightened despot. Reform program designed to increase power of monarchy. Organized indirect taxes (more money), new bureaucracy, codified Prussian law, abolished use of torture in legal proceedings. Tariff wall around Prussia, reduced internal tariffs. Bank of Berlin Canals built, swamps drained, new crops (turnips, potatoes). Religious toleration.

13 Before Peter the Great Greek Orthodox Church --> Cultural influence was from Constantinople, not Rome. Conquest of the Mongols 1240-1480 No warm water port. Different ethnic Russians (Great Russians, Byelorussians, Cossaks, Ukrainians). Serfs more like slaves. Could be bought and sold. Society more Asian than European. Women veiled, manners crude, superstition rampant, murder and torture common. Church feared western influences (clocks). Feudal system. String of settlements to Pacific by the 1630s. 1553 - Richard Chancellor. English trade continuous via White Sea/Archangel (frozen part of year). Ivan the Terrible (1533-84) first "tsar" of Russia. Determined not to let Poland's weaknesses repeat themselves in Russia. Time of Troubles (1604-13) - Civil Wars 1613 17-year-old Michael Romanov comes to power. early Romanivs set up absolute monarchy and repressed representative institutions. 1667 - Razin's peasant uprising. Put down in 1671.

14 Peter the Great Became tsar at ten with brother Ivan V (who died soon after). First taste of the West was the German Quarter of Moscow, where he saw many western Europeans living in Russia. 1697 - Traveled England, Holland, and other countries (galleries, mines, workshops) & amazed at the West. Rebellion of Moscow guard (streltsi) brought him back with determination to Westernize Russia.

15 Peter the Great and Foreign Affairs 1697-98 - Recruited 1,000 experts in various fields from the West. More followed. 1700 - Battle of Narva. Swedish King Charles XII beat 40,000 Russian soldiers with 8,000. Peter had to Westernize or be crushed. Goal was to create an army/state to stand up to the west. Defensive against Poles, Swedes, Turks and offensive in order to find a warm water port. At war all but two years of his reign. The harsh Russian winter on the plains was the best defense. Ended Great Northern War (1701-21) with a piece of Sweden's Baltic Coast with the Treaty of Nystadt (1721). Steltsi often rebelled. Got rid of them and replaced them with European officers (paid better than Russians). Uniforms, artillery, recruiting for the army. Empire was held together by military might. St. Petersburg built on land won from the Swedes (drained a swamp to do it). Made it a capital city facing West instead of East.

16 Peter the Great @ Home Religion Old Believers against reforms which were pushed through with the army. Peter abolished patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church. Established Holy Synod: committee of bishops headed by a procurator-general (a layman). Church comes under control of the state.

17 Peter the Great @ Home Economic and Labor Needed money for the army, so imposed odd taxes (beard tax, soul tax). Peasants couldn't move from place to place and had to pay taxes (nearly universal peasantry). Mercantilism and state-run industry. State monopolies on many industries. Serfdom moves from agricultural to industrial (industrial slaves). Government was the only organization with enough capital to sponsor industry, so they did. Industry founded on basis of unfree labor, not on private profit as in the West.

18 Peter the Great @ Home Political Disbanded the Duma and came up with a Senate (run by Peter) and ten gubernii of various territories. Tsardom could be inherited by anyone the current tsar chose. (Put son Alexis to death b/c Alexis claimed he would put it all back when he inherited.) Everyone who was anyone was in the army or the civil service. Status dependent on civil service level, not on birth. 1722 - Table of Ranks codified this. Boyars didn't like it. Didn't last after Peter.

19 Peter the Great @ Home Social Ordered boyars to send their sons to the West to learn, and encouraged Westerners to settle in Russia. Schools, hospitals, Russian Academy of Science. Boyars had to be clean-shaven (beard tax) and women lifted veils and attended social functions with husbands to learn manners. Simplified alphabet. Newspaper. Book of etiquette.

20 The Scientific Revolution Questioned the ancient theories about the Earth that had been accepted since the time of ancient Greece. Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Galen were questioned. Geocentric theory of the Earth eventually thrown out, despite resistance of the Catholic Church.

21 Methods Francis Bacon (English 1561-1626) - Inductive method. Experimentation/collection of data and analysis of empirical evidence. Novum Organum (1620). René Descartes (French, 1596-1650) - Deductive method. Reasoning out a general law from specific cases and applying it broadly to other cases. Cartesian method (Discourse on Method (1637)). Doubted everything except self ("cogito ergo sum"), then deduced existence of God and physical world. Analytical geometry.

22 Astronomy Nicholas Copernicus (Polish, 1473-1543) - Heliocentric theory. On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres (1543). Circular orbits. Tyco Brahe (Danish, 1546-1601) - Observatory/discoveries w/o telescope. Didn't fully accept heliocentric theory (Earth remained stationary while other planets revolved around the sun). Observations used by others to undermine Ptolemic view. Johannes Kepler (German, 1571-1630) - Brahe's assistant. Three laws of planetary motion. Elliptical orbits. Galileo Galilei (Italian, 1564-1642) - Telescope to validate heliocentric theory. Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World (1632). House arrest by Catholic Church. Bible not an authority on scientific matters. Study of falling bodies/fall at same speed. Sir Issac Newton (English, 1642-1727) - Law of Universal Gravitation. Mathematical equation tying previous observations together under gravity. Principia Mathematica (1687). Calculus.

23 Biology and Anatomy/Physiology Andreas Vasalius (Flemish, 1514-1564) - The Structure of the Human Body (1543). Based on dissection of cadavers. William Harvey (English, 1578-1657) - First to demonstrate function of the heart and circulation of the blood. On the Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals (1628). Carolus Linnaaus (Swedish, 1707-1778) - Classified animals and plants by genus and species, but said species remained constant (no evolution). Systema Naturae (1735). Count of Buffon (French, 1707-1788) - 44-volume natural history. Contributions to classification of animals.

24 Chemistry and Physics Boyle (Irish, 1627-1691) - Boyle's Law: volume of a gas under pressure is inversely proportional to amount of pressure. Defined chemical element vs. chemical compound, nature of a chemical reaction. "Father of modern chemistry.” Joseph Black (Scottish, 1728-1799) - Proved air consisted of several gasses. Joseph Priestly (English, 1733-1804) - Experiments isolating and identifying oxygen in 1775. Antoine Lavosier (French, 1743-1794) - Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. Elementary Treatise on Chemistry (1789). Identified twenty-three chemical elements. William Gilbert (English, c. 1540-1603) - Described the presence of electric charges in various substances. "Father of modern electricity." Benjamin Franklin (American, 1706-1790) - Electricity, lightening rod, various inventions. Alessandro Volta (Italian, 1745-1827) - Invented storage battery to harness electricity.


26 Interlude of peace from 1713-1740 (Walpole and Fleury) allows aristocracy to come back Aristocratic elite wants to keep power Class-->corporate identity. Tradition. Hierarchy and privilege very visible in clothing, etc. (poor not allowed to wear knee britches (“sans-culottes”). Genre/social painting (family and domestic scenes). Nuclear family (parents and children). Breakdown of social mores b/c no one older was watching out for the children's moral behavior. Emergence of women in business (could keep accounts for husband's business, ran it when he was away/dead). Marriage is a partnership. Bach - the artist of the reemerging aristocracy (grand music). Variety of servants (also, children/adolescents went out around 14 to make way in world; usually started out as servants in the city). Age of manners Conspicuous consumption - Wedgewood, silver, crystal, wines, porcelain

27 Agricultural Revolution Clover and turnips (Turnip Townsend) Jethro Tull - seed drill and iron plow Robert Bakewell - scientific breeding. Healthier, large population b/c of more food.

28 John Kay James Hargreaves Richard Arkwright Sam Compton Newcomen James Watt Eli Whitney Flying Shuttle Spinning Jenny Water Frame Spinning Mule Steam engine Better steam engine Cotton gin 1733 1764 1769 1712 1769 1793 Eighteenth-Century Inventors Who What When

29 Wars of the 1700’s

30 Diplomacy of Cardinal Fleury and Robert Walpole leads to an interlude of peace between 1715 (Utrecht) and the war of Austrian Succession

31 War creates a diplomatic Revolution and becomes global

32 Foreign Affairs Between 1713 and 1789 The War of the Polish Succession The War of Jenkins’ Ear The War of the Austrian Succession The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle The Diplomatic Revolution The Seven Years’ War The Treaty of Paris The Partitions of Poland

33 1733 - French arrange election of Stanislas Leszczynska to Polish throne (daughter Marie wife of Louis XV) Russia and Austria protest; get Augustus III elected by rump session of Polish diet. Stanislas, France,and Spain vs. Augusts III, Austria, and Russia Peace settlement gives Augustus the throne. The War of the Polish Succession

34 The War of Jenkins’ Ear 1739 - Great Britain and Spain dispute over British trade/asiento privilege in Spanish American colonies. Smuggling evoked firm response from Spanish. Robert Jenkins displays his ear to Parliament in 1738. France enters on Spain's side, and war becomes part of greater European war known as...

35 The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Frederick the Great (Prussia) tries to take Silesia (rich in natural resources and population) from Maria Theresa (Austria). Sides: Prussia, France, Spain, Bavaria, Saxony vs.Austria, Britain, Netherlands. 1742 - Prussia makes separate peace with Austria (anti-Austria side collapses). MT agrees to recognize Prussia's acquisition of Silesia. Austria begins to win battles, Freddy fears that MT might want to take Silesia back, so he reenters war. 1745 - Prussia leaves again, after getting MT to recognize (again) Prussia's acquisition of Silesia. Colonial War "King George's War" 1745 - Louisburg (mouth of St. Lawrence) captured by Brits/Massachusetts men British navy disrupts French trade in Indian Ocean and West Indies. 1746 - Joseph François Dupleix, in retaliation, takes British trading post at Madras.

36 The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle Attempted to restore the balance of power that had been established after War of the Spanish Succession Only change in land: Prussia retained Silesia. Everyone else gave everything back. Spain renewed asiento agreement with GB. Recognized MT's right to inherit Hapsburg domains Francis I (MT's husband) HREmperor Rights of the House of Hanover to lands in Northern Germany. Confirmed emergence of Prussia as a great European power. Did not resolve colonial conflicts with GB and France.

37 The Diplomatic Revolution Old Alliances Britain France Holland vs. Spain Austria Prussia New Alliances Britain France Holland vs. Austria Prussia (Spain) Basic enemies remained: GB and France, Prussia and Austria

38 The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) 1756 - Frederick the Great invades Saxony (Austria's ally) Financial support from Britain b/c hope to divert France's attention away from the colonies 1763 - Treaty of Hubertusberg confirms Prussia's possession of Silesia Colonial war = French and Indian War William Pitt (PM of GB) led war--replaced incompetent military commanders and sent money to Prussia Black Hole of Calcutta (India) Fort Duquesne Plains of Abraham(Quebec)

39 The Treaty of Paris (1763) British get: French Canada and NA between Appalachians and Mississippi R., as well as Spanish Florida. Establish dominance in India. Spanish get: New Orleans and territory west of Mississippi R. French keep: a few islands in the West Indies and some trading posts in India. British are the big winners, French are the big losers.

40 The Partitions of Poland First Partition (1772) Poland lost 1/2 of its population and 1/3 of its territory Prussia gained most of West Prussia (uniting East Prussia with Brandenburg under Frederick the Great) Russia gained most of Byelorussia Austria gained province of Galicia Second Partition (1793) Prussia gained territory around Danzig (seaport) and more of western Poland Russia gained Lithuania and western Ukraine Austria did not participate Third Partition (1794) In response to Polish national revolt by Thaddeus Kosciuszko Prussia gained area around Warsaw Russia gained more of Lithuania and the Ukraine Austria gained Cracow region Poland ceased to exist as an independent state

41 The Enlightenment John Locke Voltaire Rousseau

42 The Enlightenment A reform movement springing from the scientific revolution. Enlightenment thinkers (philosophes) were critics of the Old Regime who believed that scientific methods and principles could be applied to society to improve the world. Believed that humanity was basically good, but had been corrupted by the current institutions of authority; had to reform those institutions. Most were Deists.

43 Marquis de Condorcet Progress of the Human Mind (1795). 9 eras of man, peace and justice would reign in the tenth era.

44 John Locke (1632-1704) Essay Concerning Human Understanding. tabula rasa (clean slate) - all knowledge from experience, nothing innate Second Treatise of Government Social contract theory. Government based on mutual consent between people and authority. Gov't formed by people to protect natural rights. Natural rights: Life, liberty, property. If natural rights are violated, people can rebel against gov't. If ruler tries to rule absolutely and violate social contract, people can rebel (justification for Glorious Revolution). Man is good in a state of nature.

45 Thomas Hobbs Leviathan Man is bad in a state of nature Justification for totalitarianism.

46 Voltaire (1694-1778) Candide (1759) Attacked superstition, religious persecution, war. Critical of the establishment (Old Regime). Gov't has a responsibility to educate the people Gov't should not be tyrannical. Enlightened despotism Absolute ruler should use his/her power to make reforms. Friends with Frederick the Great of Prussia and Catherine the Great of Russia (enlightened despots). Ruler would have to give up power for the plan to work. No one wanted to.

47 Voltaire, Con’t Letters on the English Compliments English constitutional monarchy. Never proposed any alternatives to the Old Regime. Treatise on Tolerance Free speech/thought. Defended John Calas (executed for murdering his son in order to prevent his turning Catholic). Deism - God was the prime mover/clockmaster who started things going on Earth, then turned a blind eye and deaf ear to humans. Life after death, but rejected Christian doctrines.

48 Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712- 1778) Emile Natural education. Don't force kids to read, but let them learn by experience. No harsh discipline. The Social Contract Stressed the role of the individual as a member of society. Members of society agree to be ruled by the general will. Obedience to the general will (always right) is an act of freedom. Essentially a representative gov't (general will is carried out by a small group). General will helped promote the development of democratic ideology (Rousseau himself was not in favor of democracy).

49 Baron de Montesquieu (1689- 1755) The Spirit of the Laws System of government based on different factors: area, population, religious/cultural traditions, climate. Separation of powers (executive, legislative, judicial). Checks and balances. Division between central and local authority.

50 Cesare Beccaria Essay on Crimes and Punishments (1764) Certainty of punishment far more effective deterrent than the severity of it. Justice should be swift. Punishment should focus on rehabilitation of the criminal.

51 Enlightened Economics "Laissez faire, laissez passer" (let do, let pass). Economy should be left free to regulate itself by natural laws. Anti-mercantilism Physiocrats.

52 Enlightened Economists François Quesnay (1694-1774) Physician to Louis XV and Mme. de Pompadour. Land is the only source of wealth. No tariffs/free trade. State should establish one tax on income derived from the land. Adam Smith (1723-1790) Most influential advocate of laissez-faire. The Wealth of Nations Nation's wealth based on production of goods; mercantilistic restrictions cut into this wealth. People should be free to pursue their own economic self- interest, which would increase everyone's economic wealth.

53 The Enlightenment was popularized by: The Encyclopedia Diderot and d'Alembert Compendium of articles written by all the philosophes. Spread ideas among one another and the rest of the public. Salons Discussion among friends about politics, new ideas, etc. Most famous probably Mme. de Pompadour's (Louis XV's mistress) Enlightened despots Catherine the Great of Russia Frederick the Great of Prussia Maria Theresa and Joseph II of Austria

54 Maria Theresa (Austria) Taxed nobility (but not equally) and church. Council of state, bureaucracy. Hospitals, schools. Days of robot reduced. All the benefits cost more in taxes. Enlightened Despotism Joseph II (Austria) State = greatest good for the greatest number. No serfs. Single tax on everyone. Freedom of speech/press. Schools. Religious toleration. Secret police. Dies and all goes back to the way it was.


56 Long Range Problems leading to the French Revolution Political/Social Louis XV and XVI are incompetent/unable to govern effectively. Three Estates did not represent the people equally and hadn't met since 1614. People identified with their estate for their political identity. Nobility monopolized public office and retained manorial rights and dues. Brienne and Louis XVI try to get rid of parléments and replace with a modern judicial system, but it doesn't work. Censorship. Corrupt, inefficient bureaucracy. Rigid class distinctions 1st and 2nd estate = 3% of pop. 3rd estate = 97% of pop.

57 Long Range Problems leading to the French Revolution Economic Lack of coherent fiscal system 1/4 of annual budget goes to the army Peasants/borgeosie pay all the taxes Repudiation of national debt Inflation Manorial dues Public office salaries Prosperous country, but most money in the hands of the nobles Flat taxes that were suggested were not passed

58 Long Range Problems leading to the French Revolution Intellectual Physiocrat thinkers Enlightenment philosophes Ideas were popularized Government a contract (Social Contract) Spirit of the Laws Emile Candide Gov't comes from below, not above.

59 Short Range Problems Leading to the French Revolution 1788 Estates General to meet for the first time (5/89) Bankruptcy of gov't Assembly of Notables 1789 Estates Gen'l Abbe Seiyes - What Is the Third Estate? Very bad harvest --> increase in food prices

60 June 17, 1789 - 3rd Estate = National Assembly that is "sovereign". June 20 - Tennis Court Oath - they will not disband, they are sovereign representatives of the people, they will write a constitution June 27 - 18,000 soldiers at Versailles from Louis XVI Summer 1789 - Great Fear/Gran Peur. Peasants riot and destroy tax records and symbols of royal absolutism. July 14 - Storming of the Bastille Tricolor/Lafayette Aristocrats flee (émigrés) Aug. 4 Decrees verify what the peasants did in attacking manors--feudalism is ended. Aug. 27 - The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen - legal equality Oct. 10 - Women's march brings king from Versailles to Tuilleries in Paris Dec. - Confiscation of church lands. Issuing of assignats (paper money). Stage One: The National Assembly (1789-1791)

61 July 1790 - Civil Constitution of the Clergy - Church becomes a department of government. Salaries paid by gov't. Had to take a pledge to the gov't; those that didn't "Refractory" or "non- juring" June 20, 1791 - King tries to flee, captured at Varennes. Sept. 14 - Constitution of 1791. Created limited constitutional monarchy/the Legislative Assembly Protected propertied interests Civil (not political) equality King had suspensive veto Active citizens could vote for 50,000 electors that voted for the Legislative Assembly (passive citizens (women, poor) got no vote) 83 departments of gov't (still around today) No guilds (Chapelier Law - no strike) No parlements - elected judges, purely civil and criminal rather than manorial Workers get basically zip. Declaration of Pillnitz - Hapsburg Emperor Leopold (brother of Marie Antoinette) says that if every other power in Europe will join him, he will fight against France (believed that it would never happen b/c of England's William Pitt not wanting to get involved in France's domestic affairs) Stage One Continued

62 Inexperienced radicals/Girondists and the Mountain in charge (were influenced by sans-cullotes) Declares war on Europe b/c of Declaration of Pillnitz (and they want to spread the revolution around the continent) Brunswick Manifesto (July 1792) - Prussia and Austria would destroy Paris Aug. 10 - Paris mob swarms palace, king is deposed (executed 1793), elections called for (National Convention), republican constitution wanted When they killed Louis, the constitutional monarchy constitution couldn't work, and they were cooked. Stage Two: The Legislative Assembly (1791-92)

63 Declares a Republic that is dominated by the Mountain. Dec 1793 - Louis executed Slavery & primogeniture gone, émigré land taken, new calendar, new metric system Conscription, foreign war continues Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety formed (police state, loss of civil liberties) Reign of Terror begins in 1793 because of the Committee of Public Safety's powers - could arrest anyone suspected of being an enemy. Lasts one year. Levee en masse - everyone has to fight. France starts to win the war; only Britain stays in. Republic of Virtue - changes churches to "Temples of Reason" Thermidorian Reaction - opposition to Robespierre, who was beheaded, along with his allies, on July 28, 1794. New constitution drafted (Constitution of Year III). Two-house Parliament and the Directory. Stage Three: the National Convention (1792-1795)

64 Five directors and a legislative council of 500, plus Council of Ancients (over 40) provided for by Const. of 1795. Middle class is in charge Severe financial crisis, inflation, shortages, uprisings Relies on the army for support Louis XVI's brother tries to regain power Conspiracy of Equals (Communists) Churches and theatres reopened after closing during National Convention. Dresses very revealing/knee britches come back. Some emigres and non-juring clergy come back Nov. 9, 1799 - Napoleon coup d'etat of Brumaire Stage Four: The Directory (1795-1799)

65 Nov 9, 1799 - Seizes power w/ help of two Directors New Constitution - Constitution of Year VIII (1799) establishes Consulate - 3 Consuls (Nap. First Consul, only one with real power) 1801 - Concordat with Pope giving the Vatican control over the French clergy (and Vatican recognizes new French gov't). 1802 - Nap. voted consul for life with power to name his successor 1804 - Nap. becomes Hereditary Emperor of France 1805 - Nap. becomes King of Italy Stage Five: Napoleon (1799-1815)

66 Reforms Concordat with Pope All public authority concentrated in paid agents of state/centralized authority No corruption/waste in gov't, reorganized collection and assessment of taxes Napoleonic Codes of Civil and Criminal Law More secondary and technical/professional schools No legal classes Remakes the Map France gets : austrian Netherlands, Austrian possessions in Italy France controls: Cisalpine Republic (N. Italy), Confederation of the Rhine (German states), Grand Duchy of Warsaw Napoleon Continued


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