2 Key Issue #1Where are English-Language Speakers Distributed?
3 Where Are English Language Speakers Distributed? Global distribution of language results from 2 geographic processes-interaction and isolationOrigin and diffusion of EnglishEnglish is spoken by appx ½ billion people as a first language & 2 billion people live in a country where English is an official languageEnglish coloniesOrigins of EnglishGerman invasionsNorman invasions
4 English-Speaking Countries Fig. 5-1: English is the official language in 42 countries, including some in which it is not the most widely spoken language. It is also used and understood in many others.Figure 5-2
5 Invasions of England 5th–11th centuries Fig. 5-2: The groups that brought what became English to England included Jutes, Angles, Saxons, and Vikings. The Normans later brought French vocabulary to English.
6 Where Are English Language Speakers Distributed? Dialects of EnglishDialect = a regional variation of a language set apart by vocabulary, spelling, & pronunciation.Isogloss = a word-usage boundaryStandard language = a well-established dialectDialectsIn EnglandDifferences between British and American English
7 Old and Middle English Dialects Fig. 5-3: The main dialect regions of Old English before the Norman invasion persisted to some extent in the Middle English dialects through the 1400s.
8 Where Are English Language Speakers Distributed? Dialects of EnglishDialects in the United StatesSettlement in the eastern United StatesNew England, Middle Atlantic, & SoutheasternRegional pronunciation differences are more familiar than word differences
9 Dialects in the Eastern U.S. Fig. 5-4: Hans Kurath divided the eastern U.S. into three dialect regions, whose distribution is similar to that of house types
12 Key Issue #2Why Is English Related to Other Languages?
13 Why Is English Related to Other Languages? Indo-European languagesEnglish is a part of the Indo-European language family-collection of languages related through a common ancestorLanguage branch = collection of related languagesIndo-European = eight branchesFour branches have a large number of speakers:GermanicIndo-IranianBalto-SlavicRomance
14 Why Is English Related to Other Languages? Indo-European languagesA language group -collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.For example, West Germanic is the group within the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family to which English belongs.
15 Indo-European Language Family Fig. 5-5: The main branches of the Indo-European language family include Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo-Iranian.
16 Linguistic Differences in Europe and India Figure 5-10Figure 5-11
17 Germanic Branch of Indo-European Fig. 5-6: The Germanic branch today is divided into North and West Germanic groups. English is in the West Germanic group.
18 South Asian Languages and Language Families Fig. 5-7: Indo-European is the largest of four main language families in South Asia. The country of India has 18 official languages.
19 Romance Branch of Indo-European Fig. 5-8: The Romance branch includes three of the world’s 12 most widely spoken languages (Spanish, French, and Portuguese), as well as a number of smaller languages and dialects.
20 Why Is English Related to Other Languages? Origin and diffusion of Indo-EuropeanA “Proto-Indo-European” language?Internal evidenceNomadic warrior theorySedentary farmer theory
21 Kurgan Theory of Indo-European Origin “Nomadic Warrior” Theory Fig. 5-9: In the Kurgan theory, Proto-Indo-European diffused from the Kurgan hearth north of the Caspian Sea, beginning about 7,000 years ago.
22 Anatolian Hearth Theory of Indo-European Origin “Sedentary Farmer” Theory Fig. 5-10: In the Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European originated in Turkey before the Kurgans and diffused through agricultural expansion.
23 Key Issue #3Where are Other Language Families Distributed?
24 Where Are Other Language Families Distributed? Classification of languagesIndo-European = the largest language family46 percent of the world’s population speaks an Indo- European languageSino-Tibetan = the second-largest language family21 percent of the world’s population speaks a Sino- Tibetan languageMandarin = the most used language in the world
25 Language Families of the World Fig. 5-11: Distribution of the world’s main language families. Languages with more than 100 million speakers are named.
26 Major Language Families Percentage of World Population Fig. 5-11a: The percentage of world population speaking each of the main language families. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan together represent almost 75% of the world’s people.
27 Where Are Other Language Families Distributed? Languages of the Middle East and Central AsiaAfro-AsiaticArabic = most widely spokenAltaicTurkish = most widely spokenUralicEstonian, Hungarian, and Finnish
28 Language Family TreesFig. 5-12: Family trees and estimated numbers of speakers for the main world language families.
29 Chinese IdeogramsFig. 5-13: Chinese language ideograms mostly represent concepts rather than sounds. The two basic characters at the top can be built into more complex words.
30 Where Are Other Language Families Distributed? African language familiesExtensive linguistic diversity1,000 distinct languages + thousands of dialectsNiger-Congo95 percent of sub-Saharan Africans speak a Niger- Congo languageNilo-SaharanKhoisan“Click” languages
31 Language Families of Africa Fig. 5-14: The 1,000 or more languages of Africa are divided among five main language families, including Austronesian languages in Madagascar.
32 Languages of NigeriaFig. 5-15: More than 200 languages are spoken in Nigeria, the largest country in Africa (by population). English, considered neutral, is the official language.
33 Key Issue #4Why Do People Preserve Local Languages?
34 Why Do People Preserve Languages? Preserving language diversityExtinct languages473 “endangered” languages todayExamplesReviving extinct languages: HebrewPreserving endangered languages: CelticMultilingual statesWalloons and Flemings in BelgiumSwitzerlandIsolated languagesBasqueIcelandic
35 Language Divisions in Belgium Fig. 5-16: There has been much tension in Belgium between Flemings, who live in the north and speak Flemish, a Dutch dialect, and Walloons, who live in the south and speak French.
36 Language Areas in Switzerland Fig. 5-17: Switzerland remains peaceful with four official languages and a decentralized government structure.
37 Why Do People Preserve Languages? Global dominance of EnglishEnglish: An example of a lingua francaLingua franca = an international languagePidgin language = a simplified version of a languageExpansion diffusion of EnglishEbonics
38 Why Do People Preserve Languages? Global dominance of EnglishDiffusion to other languagesFranglaisThe French Academy (1635) = the supreme arbiter of the French languageSpanglishDenglish
39 French-English Boundary in Canada Fig. 5-18: Although Canada is bilingual, French speakers are concentrated in the province of Québec, where 80% of the population speaks French.
40 Internet Hosts, by Language Fig 5-1-1a: The large majority of internet hosts in 1999 used English, Chinese, Japanese, or European languages.