4 Where Are English Language Speakers Distributed? Origin and diffusion of EnglishEnglish is spoken by 380 million as a first language(1.8 million as secondary)English coloniesOrigins of EnglishGerman invasionsNorman invasions
8 Where Are English Language Speakers Distributed? Dialects of EnglishIsogloss = a word-usage boundary (“ya’ll” in the South)Dialects = a regional variation of a languageIn EnglandDifferences between British and American English
10 Where Are English Language Speakers Distributed? Dialects of EnglishDialects in the United StatesSettlement in the eastern United StatesCurrent differences in the eastern United StatesPronunciation differences
11 Quick Think-Pair-Share You and your teammate(s) quickly write down every weird pronunciation or funny words you have heard or funny phrases spoken by people from a different state or area.
12 Dialects in the Eastern United States Figure 5-7
16 Why Is English Related to Other Languages? Indo-European branchesLanguage branch = collected of related languagesIndo-European = eight branchesFour branches have a large number of speakers:GermanicIndo-IranianBalto-SlavicRomance
17 Branches of the Indo-European Family Figure 5-9
18 Linguistic Differences in Europe and India Figure 5-10Figure 5-11
21 Why Is English Related to Other Languages? Origin and diffusion of Indo-EuropeanA “Proto-Indo-European” language?Internal evidence – similar root words: beech, oak, bear, deer, bee, etc.Nomadic warrior theorySedentary farmer theory
22 Nomadic Warrior Theory - Marija Gimbutas KURGAN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!The Kurgan!!!!!! hypothesis (also theory or model) is one of the proposals about early Indo- European language origins, which postulates that the people of an archaeological "Kurgan culture" (a term grouping the Yamna, or Pit Grave, culture and its predecessors) in the Pontic steppe (present day Kazakhstan – very nice!) were the most likely speakers of the Proto-Indo- European language. They were “nomadic” herders and migrated for greener grass…
23 Sedentary Farmer Theory - Colin Renfrow The Anatolian hypothesis is also called Renfrew's Neolithic Discontinuity Theory (NDT); it proposes that the dispersal (discontinuity) of Proto-Indo-Europeans originated in Neolithic Anatolia (present day Turkey – gobble, gobble). The hypothesis suggests that the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) lived in Anatolia during the Neolithic era, and associates the distribution of historical Indo-European languages with the expansion during the Neolithic revolution during the seventh and sixth millennia BC. It theorizes that the languages diffused as farmers migrated into Europe.
24 Where Are Other Language Families Distributed? Classification of languagesIndo-European = the largest language family46 percent of the world’s population speaks an Indo- European languageSino-Tibetan = the second-largest language family21 percent of the world’s population speaks a Sino-Tibetan languageMandarin = the most used language in the world – From Where?
26 Where Are Other Language Families Distributed? Languages of the Middle East and Central AsiaAfro-AsiaticArabic = most widely spokenAltaicTurkish = most widely spokenUralicEstonian, Hungarian, and Finnish
28 Where Are Other Language Families Distributed? African language familiesExtensive linguistic diversity1,000 distinct languages + thousands of dialectsNiger-Congo95 percent of sub-Saharan Africans speak a Niger- Congo languageNilo-SaharanKhoisan“Click” languages
31 Why Do People Preserve Languages? Preserving language diversityExtinct languages473 “endangered” languages todayExamplesReviving extinct languages: HebrewPreserving endangered languages: CelticMultilingual statesWalloons and Flemings in BelgiumIsolated languagesBasqueIcelandic
33 Why Do People Preserve Languages? Global dominance of EnglishEnglish: An example of a lingua francaLingua franca = an international languagePidgin language = a simplified version of a languageExpansion diffusion of EnglishEbonics
34 Why Do People Preserve Languages? Global dominance of EnglishDiffusion to other languagesFranglaisThe French Academy (1635) = the supreme arbiter of the French languageSpanglishDenglish