Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5.1: Where Are English-Language Speakers Distributed?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 5.1: Where Are English-Language Speakers Distributed?
2 Language- a system of communication through speech, it is a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaningLiterary Tradition- a system of written communicationsGlobal distribution of languages results from two geographic processes: interaction and isolationOnce groups begin to interact, both of their languages slowly begin to change
3 Origin and Diffusion of English Languages originate at a particular place and diffuses to other location through migrationThe location of English-speakers illustrates the process by which language is distributed worldwideIt is spoken fluently by half a billion people (second only to Mandarin) and is the official language in 42 countries.Two billion people live in countries where it is an official language even if they can’t speak it
4 English coloniesEnglish migration to colonies led to spread of EnglishEnglish diffused to north America in the early 1600’sMost recently the United States has been responsible for the diffusion of English
5 Origins of English in England No record until the Celts arrived in 2000 BCAround 450 AD groups from Europe invade and push the Celts northGermanic tribes known as the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes (Anglo-Saxons)Viking invasions begin to change the languageThe Norman invasion (1066) changed the language drastically.The Normans force the French language on the BritishThe English language is a mixture of German, French and Viking languages
6 Dialects of EnglishA dialect is a regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling and pronunciationSpeakers of one dialect can usually understand a speaker of another dialectWidespread diffusion of English has led to many dialects (US vs. English vs. Australians)
7 Some languages have a certain dialect that is chosen as the standard language, which is used for government, business, education, and mass communication (British Received Pronunciation (BRP)
8 Differences between British and American English During the 18th and 19th centuries the countries were relatively isolated from each other
9 The languages differ in three ways Vocabulary- new objects and experiences in America (animals, Indian names, inventions) elevator called lift, trunk called a boot, flashlight called a torchSpelling- differed because the US wanted to establish an independent identity. Noah Webster (creator of 1st American dictionary and grammar books) purposely changed spelling of words to create national pridePronunciation- most communications were by letter or written rather than through voice transmission, so the languages slowly diverge
10 US DialectsThe English of the original colonists determined the future speech patterns for communities because later immigrants adopted their style of language when they moved to the USSplit into three distinctive dialects: New England, Southern, Middle AtlanticThe majority of the US speaks Middle Atlantic English (Midwest and Western US) since most western settlers came from the Middle Atlantic states
11 Chapter 5.2: Why is English Related to Other Languages?
12 English is part of the Indo-European language family. Language families are a collection of languages that share a common ancestor that existed long before recorded history.The Indo-European language family is the largest of the language families (3 billion).
13 Indo-European Branches Language Branches: collection of languages with a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago.They can be traced through archeological evidence and are much more similar than language familiesDivided into eight different branchesThe four most common branches are Germanic, Indo-Iranian, Romance, and Balto-Slavic
15 Germanic BranchEnglish is part of the Germanic Branch (remember that pesky German invasion of England?)Language group: collection of languages within a branch that shares a relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
16 English is part of the West Germanic group of languages Languages in this branch include German (West, High, Low), Dutch (Netherlands), Flemish (Belgium), Afrikaans (South Africa), Norwegian, Swedish, etc.
17 Indo-Iranian BranchIs the largest Indo-European branch including over 100 languages spoken by 1 billion peopleIndic (Eastern group)Includes India, Pakistan and BangladeshIndia has 18 official languages (Hindi, Urdu, English) and many others are spoken in the country as wellIranian (Western group)Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan
18 Balto-Slavic Branch Romance Branch Divided into East, West, South, and Baltic groupsEast group is predominantly Russian, West is Polish, South is Serbo-CroatianSouth languages are so similar that most people can understand the other languagesRomance BranchCan be traced back to Latin spoken by the Roman Empire 2000 years agoIncludes Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and FrenchOriginally diffused by the Romans, later diffused through European imperialism
19 Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European Linguists cannot agree on where Indo-European originated or the path by which it spreadTwo theories on the diffusion: war/conquest or peaceful sharing of foodOne theory states that the first speakers the Kurgans of Russia (4500 BC).Originally migrated for food, but later conquered much of Europe and South Asia
20 Another theory claims the Anatolians (2000 years earlier) were the original speakers. They spread through migration and agricultural practices rather than war.However it was originally spread, after generations of isolation individual groups evolved distinct languages
21 Chapter 5.3: Where Are Other Language Families Distributed? Although several thousand languages are spoken in the world, they can be organized logically into a small number of language families.
22 Classification of Languages About 50 percent of all people speak a language in the Indo-European family (German)About 20 percent speak a language in the Sino-Tibetan family (China)About 5 percent in each of the followingAfro-Asiatic (Middle East)Austronesian (Southeast Asia)Niger-Congo (Africa)Dravidian (India)The remaining 10 percent is split into smaller families
23 Distribution of Language Families Sino-Tibetan FamilySpoken by over 1 billion people in China and a few smaller nations in Southeast AsiaThree-fourths of Chinese speak Mandarin and this is the official language of the governmentBased on 420 single syllable words that have multiple meanings (depends on context and tone)Written as ideograms, which represent ideas or concepts rather than specific pronunciationsJapanese and Korean sound similar to Chinese but have their own distinct families
24 Afro-Asiatic FamilyIncludes Hebrew and ArabicThe holy books of the three largest religions are written in these languagesAfrican FamiliesOver one thousand languages and a few thousand dialects have been recordedNigeria: conflict among speakers of different language groupsOver 200 languages spokenGroups often fight each other or the government due to differences in culture and language
25 Chapter 5.4: Why Do People Preserve Local Languages? The spread of English illustrates the conflicts of Globalization vs. Local Diversity. Some languages end up becoming extinct; others are fighting to keep their traditional languages intact
26 Preserving Local Diversity Linguists expect that hundreds of languages will become extinct during the 21st century and only about 300 languages have the # of speakers and government protection to surviveAn example of preserving language is CelticUsed to be spoken in Germany, Italy, and EnglandToday it survives only in small parts of Scotland, Wales, and IrelandSurvival depends on political and military strength of it’s speakersMost families encourage learning English so they could obtain jobsBritain’s 1988 Education Act has helped save the language (all students required to learn Welsh history and language)Britain now offers cable channels in Welsh, and bands such as U2 have recorded Gaelic songs
27 Multilingual StatesDifficulties can arise at the border between two languagesBelgiumSouthern Belgians speak French while Northern ones speak FlemishThe nation is split into two regions each with it’s own official languageEach region has its own government and receives money from the national governmentBelgium has trouble defining the exact boundary which leads to conflictSwitzerlandHas four official languages (German, French, Italian, Romansh)Allows decentralized or local government to decide most affairs as well as voter referendumsThis has caused much less friction than the Belgian system
28 Isolated LanguagesAn isolated language is unrelated to any other and thus belongs to no language familiesExamples one example is Basque (spoken in the mountains between Spain and France)
29 Global Dominance of English English has become the most common language for communication worldwideLingua Franca- A language of international communicationIn EU countries, 83 percent of high school students learn EnglishSeventy percent of Europeans between the ages of 18 and 24 speak EnglishJapan requires six years of English and are considering making it a second language
30 Expansion Diffusion of English Lingua Franca spread through migration and conquest in the pastCurrently English is spreading through a snowball effect in two waysChanging through diffusion of new vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciationIt is fusing with other languages
31 Diffusion of Other Languages English words are being integrated into other languagesFranglaisMost French are angered that their language has been replaced as the international languageFrance has attempted to pass laws preventing such words as hamburger, jeans, T-shirts from being added to their vocabularySpanglishCombining Spanish and English words into new words has become quite common in the popular culture of many Latin American nations (bipiar- to page someone, i-meiliar- to )Has found its way into song lyrics, television and magazines